# bptest

##### Breusch-Pagan Test

Performs the Breusch-Pagan test against heteroskedasticity.

- Keywords
- htest

##### Usage

`bptest(formula, varformula = NULL, studentize = TRUE, data = list())`

##### Arguments

- formula
a symbolic description for the model to be tested (or a fitted

`"lm"`

object).- varformula
a formula describing only the potential explanatory variables for the variance (no dependent variable needed). By default the same explanatory variables are taken as in the main regression model.

- studentize
logical. If set to

`TRUE`

Koenker's studentized version of the test statistic will be used.- data
an optional data frame containing the variables in the model. By default the variables are taken from the environment which

`bptest`

is called from.

##### Details

The Breusch-Pagan test fits a linear regression model to the residuals of a linear regression model (by default the same explanatory variables are taken as in the main regression model) and rejects if too much of the variance is explained by the additional explanatory variables.

Under \(H_0\) the test statistic of the Breusch-Pagan test follows a
chi-squared distribution with `parameter`

(the number of regressors without
the constant in the model) degrees of freedom.

Examples can not only be found on this page, but also on the help pages of the
data sets `bondyield`

, `currencysubstitution`

,
`growthofmoney`

, `moneydemand`

,
`unemployment`

, `wages`

.

##### Value

A list with class `"htest"`

containing the following components:

the value of the test statistic.

the p-value of the test.

degrees of freedom.

a character string indicating what type of test was performed.

a character string giving the name(s) of the data.

##### References

T.S. Breusch & A.R. Pagan (1979),
A Simple Test for Heteroscedasticity and Random Coefficient Variation.
*Econometrica* **47**, 1287--1294

R. Koenker (1981), A Note on Studentizing a Test for Heteroscedasticity.
*Journal of Econometrics* **17**, 107--112.

W. Kr<e4>mer & H. Sonnberger (1986),
*The Linear Regression Model under Test*. Heidelberg: Physica

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
## generate a regressor
x <- rep(c(-1,1), 50)
## generate heteroskedastic and homoskedastic disturbances
err1 <- rnorm(100, sd=rep(c(1,2), 50))
err2 <- rnorm(100)
## generate a linear relationship
y1 <- 1 + x + err1
y2 <- 1 + x + err2
## perform Breusch-Pagan test
bptest(y1 ~ x)
bptest(y2 ~ x)
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package lmtest, version 0.9-36, License: GPL-2 | GPL-3*