```
### a simple two-dimensional example: cars data
cars.gb <- glmboost(dist ~ speed, data = cars,
control = boost_control(mstop = 2000),
center = FALSE)
cars.gb
### initial number of boosting iterations
mstop(cars.gb)
### AIC criterion
aic <- AIC(cars.gb, method = "corrected")
aic
### extract coefficients for glmboost
coef(cars.gb)
coef(cars.gb, off2int = TRUE) # offset added to intercept
coef(lm(dist ~ speed, data = cars)) # directly comparable
cars.gb_centered <- glmboost(dist ~ speed, data = cars,
center = TRUE)
selected(cars.gb_centered) # intercept never selected
coef(cars.gb_centered) # intercept implicitly estimated
# and thus returned
## intercept is internally corrected for mean-centering
- mean(cars$speed) * coef(cars.gb_centered, which="speed") # = intercept
# not asked for intercept thus not returned
coef(cars.gb_centered, which="speed")
# explicitly asked for intercept
coef(cars.gb_centered, which=c("Intercept", "speed"))
### enhance or restrict model
cars.gb <- gamboost(dist ~ speed, data = cars,
control = boost_control(mstop = 100, trace = TRUE))
cars.gb[10]
cars.gb[100, return = FALSE] # no refitting required
cars.gb[150, return = FALSE] # only iterations 101 to 150
# are newly fitted
### coefficients for optimal number of boosting iterations
coef(cars.gb[mstop(aic)])
plot(cars$dist, predict(cars.gb[mstop(aic)]),
ylim = range(cars$dist))
abline(a = 0, b = 1)
### example for extraction of coefficients
set.seed(1907)
n <- 100
x1 <- rnorm(n)
x2 <- rnorm(n)
x3 <- rnorm(n)
x4 <- rnorm(n)
int <- rep(1, n)
y <- 3 * x1^2 - 0.5 * x2 + rnorm(n, sd = 0.1)
data <- data.frame(y = y, int = int, x1 = x1, x2 = x2, x3 = x3, x4 = x4)
model <- gamboost(y ~ bols(int, intercept = FALSE) +
bbs(x1, center = TRUE, df = 1) +
bols(x1, intercept = FALSE) +
bols(x2, intercept = FALSE) +
bols(x3, intercept = FALSE) +
bols(x4, intercept = FALSE),
data = data, control = boost_control(mstop = 500))
coef(model) # standard output (only selected base-learners)
coef(model,
which = 1:length(variable.names(model))) # all base-learners
coef(model, which = "x1") # shows all base-learners for x1
cf1 <- coef(model, which = c(1,3,4), aggregate = "cumsum")
tmp <- sapply(cf1, function(x) x)
matplot(tmp, type = "l", main = "Coefficient Paths")
cf1_all <- coef(model, aggregate = "cumsum")
cf1_all <- lapply(cf1_all, function(x) x[, ncol(x)]) # last element
## same as coef(model)
cf2 <- coef(model, aggregate = "none")
cf2 <- lapply(cf2, rowSums) # same as coef(model)
### example continued for extraction of predictions
yhat <- predict(model) # standard prediction; here same as fitted(model)
p1 <- predict(model, which = "x1") # marginal effects of x1
orderX <- order(data$x1)
## rowSums needed as p1 is a matrix
plot(data$x1[orderX], rowSums(p1)[orderX], type = "b")
## better: predictions on a equidistant grid
new_data <- data.frame(x1 = seq(min(data$x1), max(data$x1), length = 100))
p2 <- predict(model, newdata = new_data, which = "x1")
lines(new_data$x1, rowSums(p2), col = "red")
### extraction of model characteristics
extract(model, which = "x1") # design matrices for x1
extract(model, what = "penalty", which = "x1") # penalty matrices for x1
extract(model, what = "lambda", which = "x1") # df and corresponding lambda for x1
## note that bols(x1, intercept = FALSE) is unpenalized
extract(model, what = "bnames") ## name of complete base-learner
extract(model, what = "variable.names") ## only variable names
variable.names(model) ## the same
### extract from base-learners
extract(bbs(x1), what = "design")
extract(bbs(x1), what = "penalty")
## weights and lambda can only be extracted after using dpp
weights <- rep(1, length(x1))
extract(bbs(x1)$dpp(weights), what = "lambda")
```

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