Perform the likelihood ratio test (LRT) for assessing the number of mixture components in a specific finite mixture model parameterisation. The observed significance is approximated by using the (parametric) bootstrap for the likelihood ratio test statistic (LRTS).

```
mclustBootstrapLRT(data, modelName = NULL, nboot = 999, level = 0.05, maxG = NULL,
verbose = interactive(), ...)
# S3 method for mclustBootstrapLRT
print(x, ...)
```# S3 method for mclustBootstrapLRT
plot(x, G = 1, hist.col = "grey", hist.border = "lightgrey", breaks = "Scott",
col = "forestgreen", lwd = 2, lty = 3, main = NULL, ...)

An object of class `'mclustBootstrapLRT'`

with the following components:

- G
A vector of number of components tested under the null hypothesis.

- modelName
A character string specifying the mixture model as provided in the function call (see above).

- obs
The observed values of the LRTS.

- boot
A matrix of dimension

`nboot`

x the number of components tested containing the bootstrap values of LRTS.- p.value
A vector of p-values.

- data
A numeric vector, matrix, or data frame of observations. Categorical variables are not allowed. If a matrix or data frame, rows correspond to observations and columns correspond to variables.

- modelName
A character string indicating the mixture model to be fitted. The help file for

`mclustModelNames`

describes the available models.- nboot
The number of bootstrap replications to use (by default 999).

- level
The significance level to be used to terminate the sequential bootstrap procedure.

- maxG
The maximum number of mixture components \(G\) to test. If not provided the procedure is stopped when a test is not significant at the specified

`level`

.- verbose
A logical controlling if a text progress bar is displayed during the bootstrap procedure. By default is

`TRUE`

if the session is interactive, and`FALSE`

otherwise.- ...
Further arguments passed to or from other methods. In particular, see the optional arguments in

`mclustBIC`

.- x
An

`'mclustBootstrapLRT'`

object.- G
A value specifying the number of components for which to plot the bootstrap distribution.

- hist.col
The colour to be used to fill the bars of the histogram.

- hist.border
The color of the border around the bars of the histogram.

- breaks
See the argument in function

`hist`

.- col, lwd, lty
The color, line width and line type to be used to represent the observed LRT statistic.

- main
The title for the graph.

The implemented algorithm for computing the LRT observed significance using the bootstrap is the following.
Let \(G_0\) be the number of mixture components under the null hypothesis versus \(G_1 = G_0+1\) under the alternative. Bootstrap samples are drawn by simulating data under the null hypothesis. Then, the p-value may be approximated using eq. (13) on McLachlan and Rathnayake (2014). Equivalently, using the notation of Davison and Hinkley (1997) it may be computed as
$$\textnormal{p-value} = \frac{1 + \#\{LRT^*_b \ge LRTS_{obs}\}}{B+1}$$
where

\(B\) = number of bootstrap samples

\(LRT_{obs}\) = LRTS computed on the observed data

\(LRT^*_b\) = LRTS computed on the \(b\)th bootstrap sample.

Davison, A. and Hinkley, D. (1997) *Bootstrap Methods and Their Applications*. Cambridge University Press.

McLachlan G.J. (1987) On bootstrapping the likelihood ratio test statistic for the number of components in a normal mixture. *Applied Statistics*, 36, 318-324.

McLachlan, G.J. and Peel, D. (2000) *Finite Mixture Models*. Wiley.

McLachlan, G.J. and Rathnayake, S. (2014) On the number of components in a Gaussian mixture model. *Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery*, 4(5), pp. 341-355.

`mclustBIC`

, `mclustICL`

, `Mclust`

```
# \donttest{
data(faithful)
faithful.boot = mclustBootstrapLRT(faithful, model = "VVV")
faithful.boot
plot(faithful.boot, G = 1)
plot(faithful.boot, G = 2)
# }
```

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