```
# following shows how tensor product deals nicely with
# badly scaled covariates (range of x 5% of range of z )
require(mgcv)
test1<-function(x,z,sx=0.3,sz=0.4)
{ x<-x*20
(pi**sx*sz)*(1.2*exp(-(x-0.2)^2/sx^2-(z-0.3)^2/sz^2)+
0.8*exp(-(x-0.7)^2/sx^2-(z-0.8)^2/sz^2))
}
n<-500
old.par<-par(mfrow=c(2,2))
x<-runif(n)/20;z<-runif(n);
xs<-seq(0,1,length=30)/20;zs<-seq(0,1,length=30)
pr<-data.frame(x=rep(xs,30),z=rep(zs,rep(30,30)))
truth<-matrix(test1(pr$x,pr$z),30,30)
f <- test1(x,z)
y <- f + rnorm(n)*0.2
b1<-gam(y~s(x,z))
persp(xs,zs,truth);title("truth")
vis.gam(b1);title("t.p.r.s")
b2<-gam(y~t2(x,z))
vis.gam(b2);title("tensor product")
b3<-gam(y~t2(x,z,bs=c("tp","tp")))
vis.gam(b3);title("tensor product")
par(old.par)
test2<-function(u,v,w,sv=0.3,sw=0.4)
{ ((pi**sv*sw)*(1.2*exp(-(v-0.2)^2/sv^2-(w-0.3)^2/sw^2)+
0.8*exp(-(v-0.7)^2/sv^2-(w-0.8)^2/sw^2)))*(u-0.5)^2*20
}
n <- 500
v <- runif(n);w<-runif(n);u<-runif(n)
f <- test2(u,v,w)
y <- f + rnorm(n)*0.2
## tensor product of 2D Duchon spline and 1D cr spline
m <- list(c(1,.5),0)
b <- gam(y~t2(v,w,u,k=c(30,5),d=c(2,1),bs=c("ds","cr"),m=m))
## look at the edf per penalty. "rr" denotes interaction term
## (range space range space). "rn" is interaction of null space
## for u with range space for v,w...
pen.edf(b)
## plot results...
op <- par(mfrow=c(2,2))
vis.gam(b,cond=list(u=0),color="heat",zlim=c(-0.2,3.5))
vis.gam(b,cond=list(u=.33),color="heat",zlim=c(-0.2,3.5))
vis.gam(b,cond=list(u=.67),color="heat",zlim=c(-0.2,3.5))
vis.gam(b,cond=list(u=1),color="heat",zlim=c(-0.2,3.5))
par(op)
b <- gam(y~t2(v,w,u,k=c(25,5),d=c(2,1),bs=c("tp","cr"),full=TRUE),
method="ML")
## more penalties now. numbers in labels like "r1" indicate which
## basis function of a null space is involved in the term.
pen.edf(b)
```

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