# sobel

##### Estimate Sobel's (1982) Test for Mediation

Estimate Sobel's (1982) indirect test for mediation. The function provides an estimate of the magnitude of the indirect effect, Sobel's first-order estimate of the standard error associated with the indirect effect, and the corresponding z-value. The estimates are based upon three models as detailed on page 84 of MacKinnon, Lockwood, Hoffman, West and Sheets (2002).

- Keywords
- htest

##### Usage

`sobel(pred,med,out)`

##### Arguments

- pred
- The predictor or independent variable (X).
- med
- The mediating variable (M).
- out
- The outcome or dependent variable (Y).

##### Value

##### References

MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83-104.

Sobel, M. E., (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological Methodology 1982 (pp. 290-312). Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

##### Examples

```
data(bh1996)
#A small but significant indirect effect indicates leadership mediates
#the relationship between work hours and well-being.
sobel(pred=bh1996$HRS,med=bh1996$LEAD,out=bh1996$WBEING)
```

*Documentation reproduced from package multilevel, version 2.6, License: GPL (>= 2)*