known variance of population. if not given, estimator from sample is taken,
but there is not so much sense in such test (it is similar to z-scores)

opposite

a logical indicating whether you want to check not the value with
largest difference from the mean, but opposite (lowest, if most suspicious is highest etc.)

Value

A list with class htest containing the following components:

statistic

the value of chisquared-statistic.

p.value

the p-value for the test.

alternative

a character string describing the alternative hypothesis.

method

a character string indicating what type of test was performed.

data.name

name of the data argument.

Details

This function performs a simple test for one outlier, based on chisquared distribution of squared
differences between data and sample mean. It assumes known variance of population.
It is rather not recommended today for routine use, because several more powerful
tests are implemented (see other functions mentioned below).
It was discussed by Dixon (1950) for the first time, as one of the tests taken into account by him.

References

Dixon, W.J. (1950). Analysis of extreme values. Ann. Math. Stat. 21, 4, 488-506.