papaja (version

printnum: Prepare numeric values for printing


Converts numeric values to character strings for reporting.


printnum(x, ...)

# S3 method for default printnum(x, na_string = getOption("papaja.na_string"), ...)

# S3 method for list printnum(x, ...)

# S3 method for integer printnum( x, numerals = TRUE, capitalize = FALSE, zero_string = "no", na_string = getOption("papaja.na_string"), ... )

# S3 method for numeric printnum( x, gt1 = TRUE, zero = TRUE, margin = 1, na_string = getOption("papaja.na_string"), use_math = TRUE, add_equals = FALSE, ... )

# S3 method for data.frame printnum(x, margin = 2, ...)

# S3 method for matrix printnum(x, margin = 2, ...)

# S3 method for papaja_labelled printnum(x, ...)



Numeric. Can be either a single value, vector, or matrix.


Arguments passed on to base::formatC


the desired number of digits after the decimal point (format = "f") or significant digits (format = "g", = "e" or = "fg").

Default: 2 for integer, 4 for real numbers. If less than 0, the C default of 6 digits is used. If specified as more than 50, 50 will be used with a warning unless format = "f" where it is limited to typically 324. (Not more than 15--21 digits need be accurate, depending on the OS and compiler used. This limit is just a precaution against segfaults in the underlying C runtime.)


the total field width; if both digits and width are unspecified, width defaults to 1, otherwise to digits + 1. width = 0 will use width = digits, width < 0 means left justify the number in this field (equivalent to flag = "-"). If necessary, the result will have more characters than width. For character data this is interpreted in characters (not bytes nor display width).


equal to "d" (for integers), "f", "e", "E", "g", "G", "fg" (for reals), or "s" (for strings). Default is "d" for integers, "g" for reals.

"f" gives numbers in the usual format; "e" and "E" give n.ddde+nn or n.dddE+nn (scientific format); "g" and "G" put x[i] into scientific format only if it saves space to do so and drop trailing zeros and decimal point - unless flag contains "#" which keeps trailing zeros for the "g", "G" formats.

"fg" (our own hybrid format) uses fixed format as "f", but digits as the minimum number of significant digits. This can lead to quite long result strings, see examples below. Note that unlike signif this prints large numbers with more significant digits than digits. Trailing zeros are dropped in this format, unless flag contains "#".


for formatC, a character string giving a format modifier as in Kernighan and Ritchie (1988, page 243) or the C+99 standard.


pads leading zeros;


does left adjustment,


ensures a sign in all cases, i.e., "+" for positive numbers ,

" "

if the first character is not a sign, the space character " " will be used instead.


specifies “an alternative output form”, specifically depending on format.


on some platform--locale combination, activates “thousands' grouping” for decimal conversion,


in some versions of glibc allow for integer conversion to use the locale's alternative output digits, if any.

There can be more than one of these flags, in any order. Other characters used to have no effect for character formatting, but signal an error since R 3.4.0.


"double" (or "real"), "integer" or "character". Default: Determined from the storage mode of x.


character; if not empty used as mark between every big.interval decimals before (hence big) the decimal point.


see big.mark above; defaults to 3.


character; if not empty used as mark between every small.interval decimals after (hence small) the decimal point.


see small.mark above; defaults to 5.


the character to be used to indicate the numeric decimal point.


string specifying if the string widths should be preserved where possible in those cases where marks (big.mark or small.mark) are added. "common", the default, corresponds to format-like behavior whereas "individual" is the default in formatC(). Value can be abbreviated.


logical, character string or NULL specifying if and how zeros should be formatted specially. Useful for pretty printing ‘sparse’ objects.

logical; if zero.print is a character string, indicates if the exact zero entries in x should be simply replaced by zero.print. Otherwise, depending on the widths of the respective strings, the (formatted) zeroes are partly replaced by zero.print and then padded with " " to the right were applicable. In that case (false replace[.zero]), if the zero.print string does not fit, a warning is produced (if warn.non.fitting is true).

This works via prettyNum(), which calls .format.zeros(*, three times in this case, see the ‘Details’.


logical, indicating if trailing zeros, i.e., "0" after the decimal mark, should be removed; also drops "e+00" in exponential formats. This is simply passed to prettyNum(), see the ‘Details’.


Character. String to print if element of x is NA.


Logical. Indicates if integer should be returned as words.


Logical. Indicates if first letter should be capitalized. Ignored if numberals = TURE.


Character. Word to print if x is a zero integer.


Logical. Indicates if the absolute value of the statistic can, in principal, greater than 1.


Logical. Indicates if the statistic can, in principal, be 0.


Integer. If x is a matrix, the function is applied either across rows (margin = 1) or columns (margin = 2).


Logical. Indicates whether to insert $ into the output so that Inf or scientific notation is rendered correctly.


Logical. Indicates if the output string should be prepended with an equals sign.


If x is a vector, digits, gt1, and zero can be vectors according to which each element of the vector is formated. Parameters are recycled if length of x exceeds length of the parameter vectors. If x is a matrix, the vectors specify the formating of either rows or columns according to the value of margin.


Run this code
printnum(1/3, gt1 = FALSE)
printnum(1/3, digits = 5)

printnum(0, zero = FALSE)

# }

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