# lag.plm

##### lag, lead, and diff for panel data

lag, lead, and diff functions for class pseries.

- Keywords
- classes

##### Usage

`lead(x, k = 1, ...)`# S3 method for pseries
lag(x, k = 1, shift = c("time", "row"), ...)

# S3 method for pseries
lead(x, k = 1, shift = c("time", "row"), ...)

# S3 method for pseries
diff(x, lag = 1, shift = c("time", "row"), ...)

##### Arguments

- x
a

`pseries`

object,- k
an integer, the number of lags for the

`lag`

and`lead`

methods (can also be negative). For the`lag`

method, a positive (negative)`k`

gives lagged (leading) values. For the`lead`

method, a positive (negative)`k`

gives leading (lagged) values, thus,`lag(x, k = -1)`

yields the same as`lead(x, k = 1)`

. If`k`

is an integer with length > 1 (`k = c(k1, k2, ...)`

), a`matrix`

with multiple lagged`pseries`

is returned,- ...
further arguments (currently none evaluated).

- shift
character, either

`"time"`

(default) or`"row"`

determining how the shifting in the`lag`

/`lead`

/`diff`

functions is performed (see Details and Examples).- lag
the number of lags for the

`diff`

method, can also be of length > 1 (see argument`k`

) (only non--negative values in argument`lag`

are allowed for`diff`

),

##### Details

This set of functions perform lagging, leading (lagging in the
opposite direction), and differencing operations on `pseries`

objects, i. e., they take the panel structure of the data into
account by performing the operations per individual.

Argument `shift`

controls the shifting of observations to be used
by methods `lag`

, `lead`

, and `diff`

:

#' - `shift = "time"`

(default): Methods respect the
numerical value in the time dimension of the index. The time
dimension needs to be interpretable as a sequence t, t+1, t+2,
… where t is an integer (from a technical viewpoint,
`as.numeric(as.character(index(your_pdata.frame)[[2]]))`

needs to
result in a meaningful integer).

`shift = "row":`

Methods perform the shifting operation based solely on the "physical position" of the observations, i.e. neighbouring rows are shifted per individual. The value in the time index is not relevant in this case.

For consecutive time periods per individual, a switch of shifting behaviour results in no difference. Different return values will occur for non-consecutive time periods per individual ("holes in time"), see also Examples.

##### Value

An object of class

`pseries`

, if the argument specifying the lag has length 1 (argument`k`

in functions`lag`

and`lead`

, argument`lag`

in function`diff`

).A matrix containing the various series in its columns, if the argument specifying the lag has length > 1.

##### Note

The sign of `k`

in `lag.pseries`

results in inverse behaviour
compared to `stats::lag()`

and `zoo::lag.zoo()`

.

##### See Also

To check if the time periods are consecutive per
individual, see `is.pconsecutive()`

.

For further function for 'pseries' objects: `between()`

,
Between(), `Within()`

, `summary.pseries()`

,
`print.summary.pseries()`

, `as.matrix.pseries()`

.

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
# First, create a pdata.frame
data("EmplUK", package = "plm")
Em <- pdata.frame(EmplUK)
# Then extract a series, which becomes additionally a pseries
z <- Em$output
class(z)
# compute the first and third lag, and the difference lagged twice
lag(z)
lag(z, 3)
diff(z, 2)
# compute negative lags (= leading values)
lag(z, -1)
lead(z, 1) # same as line above
identical(lead(z, 1), lag(z, -1)) # TRUE
# compute more than one lag and diff at once (matrix returned)
lag(z, c(1,2))
diff(z, c(1,2))
## demonstrate behaviour of shift = "time" vs. shift = "row"
# delete 2nd time period for first individual (1978 is missing (not NA)):
Em_hole <- Em[-2, ]
is.pconsecutive(Em_hole) # check: non-consecutive for 1st individual now
# original non-consecutive data:
head(Em_hole$emp, 10)
# for shift = "time", 1-1979 contains the value of former 1-1977 (2 periods lagged):
head(lag(Em_hole$emp, k = 2, shift = "time"), 10)
# for shift = "row", 1-1979 contains NA (2 rows lagged (and no entry for 1976):
head(lag(Em_hole$emp, k = 2, shift = "row"), 10)
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package plm, version 2.2-5, License: GPL (>= 2)*