# pseries

##### panel series

A class for panel series for which several useful computations and data transformations are available.

- Keywords
- classes

##### Usage

```
# S3 method for pseries
print(x, ...)
```# S3 method for pseries
as.matrix(x, idbyrow = TRUE, ...)

# S3 method for pseries
plot(
x,
plot = c("lattice", "superposed"),
scale = FALSE,
transparency = TRUE,
col = "blue",
lwd = 1,
...
)

# S3 method for pseries
summary(object, ...)

# S3 method for summary.pseries
plot(x, ...)

# S3 method for summary.pseries
print(x, ...)

Between(x, ...)

# S3 method for default
Between(x, effect, ...)

# S3 method for pseries
Between(x, effect = c("individual", "time", "group"), ...)

# S3 method for matrix
Between(x, effect, ...)

between(x, ...)

# S3 method for default
between(x, effect, ...)

# S3 method for pseries
between(x, effect = c("individual", "time", "group"), ...)

# S3 method for matrix
between(x, effect, ...)

Within(x, ...)

# S3 method for default
Within(x, effect, ...)

# S3 method for pseries
Within(x, effect = c("individual", "time", "group", "twoways"), ...)

# S3 method for matrix
Within(x, effect, rm.null = TRUE, ...)

##### Arguments

- x, object
a

`pseries`

or a`summary.pseries`

object,- …
further arguments, e. g.

`na.rm = TRUE`

for transformation functions like`beetween`

, see**Details**and**Examples**.- idbyrow
if

`TRUE`

in the`as.matrix`

method, the lines of the matrix are the individuals,- plot, scale, transparency, col, lwd
plot arguments,

- effect
character string indicating the

`"individual"`

or`"time"`

effect,- rm.null
if

`TRUE`

, for the`Within.matrix`

method, remove the empty columns,

##### Details

The functions `between`

, `Between`

, and `Within`

perform specific
data transformations, i. e. the between and within transformation.

`between`

returns a vector containing the individual means (over
time) with the length of the vector equal to the number of
individuals (if `effect = "individual"`

(default); if `effect = "time"`

,
it returns the time means (over individuals)). `Between`

duplicates the values and returns a vector which length is the
number of total observations. `Within`

returns a vector containing
the values in deviation from the individual means (if `effect = "individual"`

,
from time means if `effect = "time"`

), the so called
demeaned data.

For `between`

, `Between`

, and `Within`

in presence of NA values it
can be useful to supply `na.rm = TRUE`

as an additional argument to
keep as many observations as possible in the resulting
transformation, see also **Examples**.

##### Value

All these functions return an object of class `pseries`

,
except: `between`

, which returns a numeric vector,
`as.matrix`

, which returns a matrix.

##### See Also

`is.pseries()`

to check if an object is a pseries. For
more functions on class 'pseries' see `lag()`

, `lead()`

,
`diff()`

for lagging values, leading values (negative lags) and
differencing.

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
# First, create a pdata.frame
data("EmplUK", package = "plm")
Em <- pdata.frame(EmplUK)
# Then extract a series, which becomes additionally a pseries
z <- Em$output
class(z)
# obtain the matrix representation
as.matrix(z)
# compute the between and within transformations
between(z)
Within(z)
# Between replicates the values for each time observation
Between(z)
# between, Between, and Within transformations on other dimension
between(z, effect = "time")
Between(z, effect = "time")
Within(z, effect = "time")
# NA treatment for between, Between, and Within
z2 <- z
z2[length(z2)] <- NA # set last value to NA
between(z2, na.rm = TRUE) # non-NA value for last individual
Between(z2, na.rm = TRUE) # only the NA observation is lost
Within(z2, na.rm = TRUE) # only the NA observation is lost
sum(is.na(Between(z2))) # 9 observations lost due to one NA value
sum(is.na(Between(z2, na.rm = TRUE))) # only the NA observation is lost
sum(is.na(Within(z2))) # 9 observations lost due to one NA value
sum(is.na(Within(z2, na.rm = TRUE))) # only the NA observation is lost
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package plm, version 2.2-5, License: GPL (>= 2)*