# ranef.plm

##### Extract the Random Effects

Function to calculate the random effects from a `plm`

object
(random effects model).

- Keywords
- regression

##### Usage

```
# S3 method for plm
ranef(object, effect = NULL, ...)
```

##### Arguments

- object
an object of class

`"plm"`

, needs to be a fitted random effects model,- effect
`NULL`

,`"individual"`

, or`"time"`

, the effects to be extracted, see**Details**,- …
further arguments (currently not used).

##### Details

Function `ranef`

calculates the random effects of a fitted random
effects model. For one-way models, the effects of the estimated
model are extracted (either individual or time effects). For
two-way models, extracting the individual effects is the default
(both, argument `effect = NULL`

and `effect = "individual"`

will
give individual effects). Time effects can be extracted by setting
`effect = "time"`

.

Not all random effect model types are supported (yet?).

##### Value

A named numeric with the random effects per dimension (individual or time).

##### See Also

`fixef()`

to extract the fixed effects from a fixed
effects model (within model).

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
data("Grunfeld", package = "plm")
m1 <- plm(inv ~ value + capital, data = Grunfeld, model = "random")
ranef(m1) # individual random effects
# compare to random effects by ML estimation via lmer from package
# lme4
# }
# NOT RUN {
library(lme4)
m2 <- lmer(inv ~ value + capital + (1 | firm), data = Grunfeld)
cbind("plm" = ranef(m1), "lmer" = unname(ranef(m2)$firm))
# }
# NOT RUN {
# two-ways RE model, calculate individual and time random effects
data("Cigar", package = "plm")
tw <- plm(sales ~ pop + price, data = Cigar, model = "random", effect = "twoways")
ranef(tw) # individual random effects
ranef(tw, effect = "time") # time random effects
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package plm, version 2.2-5, License: GPL (>= 2)*