Functions `arrows3D`

and `segments3D`

draw arrows and line segments
between pairs of points.

Functions `box3D`

and `border3D`

draw boxes between pairs of points.

`polygon3D`

draws polygons; `rect3D`

draws rectangles.

The 2D functions `arrows2D`

, `segments2D`

, `rect2D`

and `polygon2D`

are included
for their side effect of having a color key.

```
arrows3D (x0, y0, z0, x1 = x0, y1 = y0, z1 = z0, ...,
colvar = NULL, phi = 40, theta = 40,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
colkey = NULL, panel.first = NULL,
clim = NULL, clab = NULL, bty = "b", type = "triangle",
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)
```segments3D (x0, y0, z0, x1 = x0, y1 = y0, z1 = z0, ...,
colvar = NULL, phi = 40, theta = 40,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
colkey = NULL, panel.first = NULL,
clim = NULL, clab = NULL, bty = "b",
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)

box3D (x0, y0, z0, x1, y1, z1, ...,
colvar = NULL, phi = 40, theta = 40,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
border = NA, facets = TRUE, colkey = NULL,
panel.first = NULL, clim = NULL, clab = NULL, bty = "b",
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)

border3D(x0, y0, z0, x1, y1, z1, ...,
colvar = NULL, phi = 40, theta = 40,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
colkey = NULL, panel.first = NULL,
clim = NULL, clab = NULL, bty = "b",
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)

rect3D (x0, y0, z0, x1 = NULL, y1 = NULL, z1 = NULL, ...,
colvar = NULL, phi = 40, theta = 40,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
border = NA, facets = TRUE, colkey = NULL,
panel.first = NULL, clim = NULL, clab = NULL, bty = "b",
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)

polygon3D (x, y, z, ...,
colvar = NULL, phi = 40, theta = 40,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
border = NA, facets = TRUE, colkey = NULL,
panel.first = NULL, clim = NULL, clab = NULL, bty = "b",
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)
arrows2D (x0, y0, x1 = x0, y1 = y0, ..., colvar = NULL,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
colkey = NULL, clim = NULL, clab = NULL,
type = "triangle", add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)

segments2D (x0, y0, x1 = x0, y1 = y0, ..., colvar = NULL,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
colkey = NULL, clim = NULL, clab = NULL,
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)

rect2D (x0, y0, x1 = x0, y1 = y0, ..., colvar = NULL,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
colkey = NULL, clim = NULL, clab = NULL,
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)
polygon2D (x, y, ..., colvar = NULL,
col = NULL, NAcol = "white", breaks = NULL,
border = NA, facets = TRUE,
colkey = NULL, clim = NULL, clab = NULL,
add = FALSE, plot = TRUE)

x0, y0, z0

coordinates of points *from* which to draw.

x1, y1, z1

coordinates of points *to* which to draw.
For `arrows3D`

and `segments3D`

, at least one must be supplied.
For `rect3D`

exactly one must be `NULL`

.

x, y, z

coordinates of the vertices of the polygon.
The polygon will be closed by joining the last point to the first point.
The coordinates can contain missing values (`NA`

).
These `NA`

values break the polygon into several complete polygons.

colvar

The variable used for coloring. It need
not be present, but if specified, it should be a vector of
dimension equal to the coordinates or to the number of polygons.
Values of `NULL`

, `NA`

, or `FALSE`

will toggle off coloration according to `colvar`

.

theta, phi

the angles defining the viewing direction.
`theta`

gives the azimuthal direction and `phi`

the colatitude.
See persp.

col

Color palette to be used for coloring the arrows or segments
as specified by the `colvar`

variable.
If `col`

is `NULL`

and `colvar`

is specified,
then a red-yellow-blue colorscheme (jet.col) will be used.
If `col`

is `NULL`

and `colvar`

is not specified, then
`col`

will be "black".

NAcol

Colors to be used for `colvar`

values that are `NA`

.

breaks

a set of finite numeric breakpoints for the colors; must have one more breakpoint than color and be in increasing order. Unsorted vectors will be sorted, with a warning.

colkey

A logical, `NULL`

(default), or a `list`

with parameters
for the color key (legend). List parameters should be one of
```
side, plot, length, width, dist, shift, addlines, col.clab, cex.clab,
side.clab, line.clab, adj.clab, font.clab
```

and the axis parameters ```
at, labels, tick, line, pos, outer, font, lty, lwd,
lwd.ticks, col.box, col.axis, col.ticks, hadj, padj, cex.axis, mgp, tck, tcl, las
```

.
The defaults for the parameters are ```
side = 4, plot = TRUE, length = 1, width = 1,
dist = 0, shift = 0, addlines = FALSE, col.clab = NULL, cex.clab = par("cex.lab"),
side.clab = NULL, line.clab = NULL, adj.clab = NULL, font.clab = NULL
```

)
See colkey.

The default is to draw the color key on side = 4, i.e. in the right margin.
If `colkey`

= `NULL`

then a color key will be added only if `col`

is a vector.
Setting `colkey = list(plot = FALSE)`

will create room for the color key
without drawing it.
if `colkey = FALSE`

, no color key legend will be added.

border

The color of the lines drawn around the surface facets.
The default, `NA`

, will disable the drawing of borders.

facets

If `TRUE`

, then `col`

denotes the color of the surface facets.
If `FALSE`

, then the surface facets are colored ``white'' and the `border`

(if `NA`

) will be colored as specified by `col`

.
If `NA`

then the facets will be transparent.
It is usually faster to draw with `facets = FALSE`

.

panel.first

A `function`

to be evaluated after the plot axes are
set up but before any plotting takes place.
This can be useful e.g. for drawing background grids or scatterplot smooths.
The function should have as argument the transformation matrix, e.g. it should
be defined as `function(pmat)`

. See example of persp3D and last example of voxel3D.

clab

Only if `colkey`

is not `NULL`

or `FALSE`

,
the label to be written on top of the color key.
The label will be written at the same level as the main title.
To lower it, `clab`

can be made a vector, with the first values empty
strings.

clim

Only if `colvar`

is specified, the range of the color variable, used
for the color key. Values of `colvar`

that extend the range will be put to `NA`

.

bty

type

The type of the arrow head, one of `"simple"`

(which uses R-function arrows), `"curved"`

or `"triangle"`

and `"cone"`

.
The latter two are the same in `plot3D`

(but differ in package `plot3Drgl`

).

add

Logical. If `TRUE`

, then the arrows, segments, ... will be added to the current plot.
If `FALSE`

a new plot is started.

plot

Logical. If `TRUE`

(default), a plot is created,
otherwise the viewing transformation matrix is returned (as invisible).

…

additional arguments passed to the plotting methods.

The following persp arguments can be specified:
```
xlim, ylim, zlim, xlab, ylab, zlab, main, sub, r, d,
scale, expand, box, axes, nticks, ticktype
```

.
The arguments `xlim`

, `ylim`

, `zlim`

only affect the axes for 3D plots.
All objects will be plotted, including those that fall out of these ranges.
To select objects only within the axis limits, use plotdev.

`shade`

and `lighting`

arguments will have no effect.

`alpha`

can be given a value inbetween 0 and 1 to make colors transparent.

In addition, the perspbox arguments
`col.axis, col.panel, lwd.panel, col.grid, lwd.grid`

can
also be given a value.

For `arrows3D`

, the following arrows arguments can be specified:
`length, code, angle`

.

For `polygon3D`

, the following polygon arguments can be specified:
`border`

.

For all the functions, arguments `lty, lwd`

can be specified.

The arguments after … must be matched exactly.

Returns the viewing transformation matrix.

See trans3D.

arrows for the 2-D arrows function on which `arrows3D`

is based.

segments for the 2-D arrows function on which `segments3D`

is based.

# NOT RUN { # save plotting parameters pm <- par("mfrow") ## ======================================================================== ## arrows, points, segments, box ## ======================================================================== # Create a grid of x, y, and z values xx <- yy <- seq(-0.8, 0.8, by = 0.2) zz <- seq(-0.8, 0.8, by = 0.8) M <- mesh(xx, yy, zz) x0 <- M$x; y0 <- M$y; z0 <- M$z x1 <- x0 + 0.1 Col <- c("red", "blue", "green") arrows3D(x0, y0, z0, x1 = x1, colvar = z0, lwd = 2, d = 2, clab = "z-value", col = Col, length = 0.1, xlim = c(-0.8, 0.8), ylim = c(-0.8, 0.8), main = "arrows3D, points3D, segments3D, border3D") # add starting point of arrows points3D(x0, y0, z0, add = TRUE, colvar = z0, colkey = FALSE, pch = ".", cex = 3, col = Col) # use segments to add section x0 <- c(-0.8, 0.8, 0.8, -0.8) x1 <- c( 0.8, 0.8, -0.8, -0.8) y0 <- c(-0.8, -0.8, 0.8, -0.8) y1 <- c(-0.8, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8) z0 <- c(0., 0., 0., 0.) segments3D(x0, y0, z0, x1, y1, z1 = z0, add = TRUE, col = "black", lwd = 2) # add a box border3D(-0.8, -0.8, -0.8, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, col = "orange", add = TRUE, lwd = 3) ## ======================================================================== ## boxes, cubes ## ======================================================================== # borders are boxes without facets border3D(x0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), y0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), z0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), x1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), y1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), z1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), col = gg.col(8), lty = 2, lwd = c(1, 4), phi = 20, main = "border3D") box3D(x0 = -0.8, y0 = -0.8, z0 = -0.8, x1 = 0.8, y1 = 0.8, z1 = 0.8, border = "black", lwd = 2, col = gg.col(1, alpha = 0.8), main = "box3D") box3D(x0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), y0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), z0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), x1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), y1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), z1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), col = rainbow(n = 8, alpha = 0.1), border = "black", lwd = 2, phi = 20) # here the perspective does not always work # use alpha.col to set the transparency of a vector of colors box3D(x0 = runif(3), y0 = runif(3), z0 = runif(3), x1 = runif(3), y1 = runif(3), z1 = runif(3), col = c("red", "lightblue", "orange"), alpha = 0.5, border = "black", lwd = 2) ## ======================================================================== ## rectangles ## ======================================================================== # at constant 'z' rect3D(x0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), y0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), z0 = seq(-0.8, -0.1, by = 0.1), x1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), y1 = seq(0.8, 0.1, by = -0.1), col = gg.col(8), border = "black", bty = "g", lwd = 2, phi = 20, main = "rect3D") # constant y and with transparent facets rect3D(x0 = 0, y0 = 0, z0 = 0, x1 = 1, z1 = 5, ylim = c(0, 1), facets = NA, border = "red", bty = "g", lwd = 2, phi = 20) # add rect at constant z, with colored facet rect3D(x0 = 0, y0 = 0, z0 = 0, x1 = 1, y1 = 1, border = "red", add = TRUE) ## ======================================================================== ## arrows added to a persp plot ## ======================================================================== x <- y <- seq(-10, 10, length = 30) z <- outer(x, y, FUN = function(x,y) x^2 + y^2) persp3D(x, y, z, theta = 30, phi = 30, col = "lightblue", ltheta = 120, shade = 0.75, ticktype = "detailed", xlab = "X", ylab = "Y", zlab = "x^2+y^2" ) # Points where to put the arrows x <- y <- seq(-10, 10, len = 6) X0 <- outer(x, y, FUN = function (x,y) x) Y0 <- outer(x, y, FUN = function (x,y) y) Z0 <- outer(x, y, FUN = function (x,y) x^2 + y^2) X1 <- X0 + 1 Y1 <- Y0 + 1 Z1 <- Z0 + 10 arrows3D(X0, Y0, Z0, X1, Y1, Z1, lwd = 2, add = TRUE, type = "curved", col = "red") segments3D(X0, Y0, Z0, X0, Y0, rep(0, length(X0)), lwd = 2, add = TRUE, col = "green") ## ======================================================================== ## polygon3D ## ======================================================================== x <- runif(10) y <- runif(10) z <- runif(10) polygon3D(x, y, z) # several polygons, separated by NAs x <- runif(39) y <- runif(39) z <- runif(39) ii <- seq(4, 36, by = 4) x[ii] <- y[ii] <- z[ii] <- NA # transparent colors (alpha) polygon3D(x, y, z, border = "black", lwd = 3, col = gg.col(length(ii) + 1, alpha = 0.8), main = "polygon3D") ## ======================================================================== ## 2D examples, with color key ## ======================================================================== arrows2D(x0 = runif(10), y0 = runif(10), x1 = runif(10), y1 = runif(10), colvar = 1:10, code = 3, main = "arrows2D, segments2D") segments2D(x0 = runif(10), y0 = runif(10), x1 = runif(10), y1 = runif(10), colvar = 1:10, lwd = 2, add = TRUE, colkey = FALSE) # transparency rect2D(x0 = runif(10), y0 = runif(10), x1 = runif(10), y1 = runif(10), colvar = 1:10, alpha = 0.4, lwd = 2, main = "rect2D") ## ======================================================================== ## polygon2D ## ======================================================================== x <- runif(10) y <- runif(10) polygon2D(x, y) # same as polygon # several polygons, separated by NAs x <- runif(59) y <- runif(59) ii <- seq(5, 55, by = 5) x[ii] <- y[ii] <- NA # transparent colors (alpha) polygon2D(x, y, border = "black", lwd = 3, colvar = 1:(length(ii) + 1), col = gg.col(), alpha = 0.2, main = "polygon2D") # restore plotting parameters par(mfrow = pm) # }