# psych v1.3.12

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## Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research

A number of routines for personality, psychometrics and experimental psychology. Functions are primarily for scale construction using factor analysis, cluster analysis and reliability analysis, although others provide basic descriptive statistics. Item Response Theory is done using factor analysis of tetrachoric and polychoric correlations. Functions for simulating particular item and test structures are included. Several functions serve as a useful front end for structural equation modeling. Graphical displays of path diagrams, factor analysis and structural equation models are created using basic graphics. Some of the functions are written to support a book on psychometrics as well as publications in personality research. For more information, see the personality-project.org/r webpage.

## Functions in psych

Name | Description | |

Schmid | 12 variables created by Schmid and Leiman to show the Schmid-Leiman Transformation | |

ICLUST.rgraph | Draw an ICLUST graph using the Rgraphviz package | |

bfi | 25 Personality items representing 5 factors | |

bi.bars | Draw pairs of bargraphs based on two groups | |

cosinor | Functions for analysis of circadian or diurnal data | |

diagram | Helper functions for drawing path model diagrams | |

ICLUST.cluster | Function to form hierarchical cluster analysis of items | |

cor.smooth | Smooth a non-positive definite correlation matrix to make it positive definite | |

ICLUST.sort | Sort items by absolute size of cluster loadings | |

factor2cluster | Extract cluster definitions from factor loadings | |

Promax | Perform bifactor, promax or targeted rotations and return the inter factor angles. | |

VSS | Apply the Very Simple Structure and MAP criteria to determine the appropriate number of factors. | |

comorbidity | Convert base rates of two diagnoses and their comorbidity into phi, Yule, and tetrachorics | |

biplot.psych | Draw biplots of factor or component scores by factor or component loadings | |

cta | Simulate the C(ues) T(endency) A(ction) model of motivation | |

00.psych | A package for personality, psychometric, and psychological research | |

cluster.cor | Find correlations of composite variables from a larger matrix | |

Harman.8 | Correlations of eight physical variables (from Harman, 1966) | |

bock | Bock and Liberman (1970) data set of 1000 observations of the LSAT | |

cluster.plot | Plot factor/cluster loadings and assign items to clusters by their highest loading. | |

eigen.loadings | Convert eigen vectors and eigen values to the more normal (for psychologists) component loadings | |

Harman | Two data sets from Harman (1967). 9 cognitive variables from Holzinger and 8 emotional variables from Burt | |

Tucker | 9 Cognitive variables discussed by Tucker and Lewis (1973) | |

Gorsuch | Example data set from Gorsuch (1997) for an example factor extension. | |

predict.psych | Prediction function for factor analysis or principal components | |

circ.tests | Apply four tests of circumplex versus simple structure | |

factor.fit | How well does the factor model fit a correlation matrix. Part of the VSS package | |

factor.scores | Various ways to estimate factor scores for the factor analysis model | |

error.crosses | Plot x and y error bars | |

count.pairwise | Count number of pairwise cases for a data set with missing (NA) data. | |

ellipses | Plot data and 1 and 2 sigma correlation ellipses | |

SD | Find the Standard deviation for a vector, matrix, or data.frame - do not return error if there are no cases | |

describeBy | Basic summary statistics by group | |

draw.tetra | Draw a correlation ellipse and two normal curves to demonstrate tetrachoric correlation | |

polar | Convert Cartesian factor loadings into polar coordinates | |

iclust.diagram | Draw an ICLUST hierarchical cluster structure diagram | |

cortest.bartlett | Bartlett's test that a correlation matrix is an identity matrix | |

burt | 11 emotional variables from Burt (1915) | |

galton | Galton's Mid parent child height data | |

blot | Bond's Logical Operations Test -- BLOT | |

irt.fa | Item Response Analysis by Exploratory Factor Analysis of tetrachoric/polychoric correlations | |

VSS.plot | Plot VSS fits | |

fa.sort | Sort factor analysis or principal components analysis loadings | |

KMO | Find the Kaiser, Meyer, Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy | |

factor.rotate | ``Hand" rotate a factor loading matrix | |

alpha | Find two estimates of reliability: Cronbach's alpha and Guttman's Lambda 6. | |

irt.1p | Item Response Theory estimate of theta (ability) using a Rasch (like) model | |

fa.extension | Apply Dwyer's factor extension to find factor loadings for extended variables | |

correct.cor | Find dis-attenuated correlations given correlations and reliabilities | |

errorCircles | Two way plots of means, error bars, and sample sizes | |

omega.graph | Graph hierarchical factor structures | |

thurstone | Thurstone Case V scaling | |

VSS.parallel | Compare real and random VSS solutions | |

logistic | Logistic transform from x to p and logit transform from p to x | |

Harman.5 | 5 socio-economic variables from Harman (1967) | |

read.clipboard | shortcut for reading from the clipboard | |

scaling.fits | Test the adequacy of simple choice, logistic, or Thurstonian scaling. | |

cor.wt | The sample size weighted correlation may be used in correlating aggregated data | |

parcels | Find miniscales (parcels) of size 2 or 3 from a set of items | |

scrub | A utility for basic data cleaning and recoding. Changes values outside of minimum and maximum limits to NA. | |

corr.test | Find the correlations, sample sizes, and probability values between elements of a matrix or data.frame. | |

headTail | Combine calls to head and tail | |

error.bars | Plot means and confidence intervals | |

spider | Make "radar" or "spider" plots. | |

winsor | Find the Winsorized scores, means, sds or variances for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

print.psych | Print and summary functions for the psych class | |

splitHalf | Alternative estimates of test reliabiity | |

p.rep | Find the probability of replication for an F, t, or r and estimate effect size | |

matrix.addition | A function to add two vectors or matrices | |

withinBetween | An example of the distinction between within group and between group correlations | |

structure.diagram | Draw a structural equation model specified by two measurement models and a structural model | |

cushny | A data set from Cushny and Peebles (1905) on the effect of three drugs on hours of sleep, used by Student (1908) | |

test.psych | Testing of functions in the psych package | |

heights | A data.frame of the Galton (1888) height and cubit data set. | |

cluster2keys | Convert a cluster vector (from e.g., kmeans) to a keys matrix suitable for scoring item clusters. | |

sim.multilevel | Simulate multilevel data with specified within group and between group correlations | |

cities | Distances between 11 US cities | |

multi.hist | Multiple histograms with density and normal fits on one page | |

cor.ci | Bootstrapped confidence intervals for raw and composite correlations | |

factor.residuals | R* = R- F F' | |

interp.median | Find the interpolated sample median, quartiles, or specific quantiles for a vector, matrix, or data frame | |

corFiml | Find a Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) correlation or covariance matrix from a data matrix with missing data | |

sim.item | Generate simulated data structures for circumplex, spherical, or simple structure | |

harmonic.mean | Find the harmonic mean of a vector, matrix, or columns of a data.frame | |

kaiser | Apply the Kaiser normalization when rotating factors | |

irt.responses | Plot probability of multiple choice responses as a function of a latent trait | |

glb.algebraic | Find the greatest lower bound to reliability. | |

cubits | Galton's example of the relationship between height and 'cubit' or forearm length | |

phi | Find the phi coefficient of correlation between two dichotomous variables | |

cluster.loadings | Find item by cluster correlations, corrected for overlap and reliability | |

iqitems | 16 multiple choice IQ items | |

geometric.mean | Find the geometric mean of a vector or columns of a data.frame. | |

cortest.mat | Chi square tests of whether a single matrix is an identity matrix, or a pair of matrices are equal. | |

make.keys | Create a keys matrix for use by score.items or cluster.cor | |

structure.list | Create factor model matrices from an input list | |

omega | Calculate McDonald's omega estimates of general and total factor saturation | |

plot.psych | Plotting functions for the psych package of class ``psych" | |

sim | Functions to simulate psychological/psychometric data. | |

sim.congeneric | Simulate a congeneric data set | |

mssd | Find von Neuman's Mean Square of Successive Differences | |

sim.structure | Create correlation matrices or data matrices with a particular measurement and structural model | |

phi2tetra | Convert a phi coefficient to a tetrachoric correlation | |

ICLUST.graph | create control code for ICLUST graphical output | |

score.multiple.choice | Score multiple choice items and provide basic test statistics | |

Dwyer | 8 cognitive variables used by Dwyer for an example. | |

partial.r | Find the partial correlations for a set (x) of variables with set (y) removed. | |

paired.r | Test the difference between (un)paired correlations | |

irt.item.diff.rasch | Simple function to estimate item difficulties using IRT concepts | |

score.irt | Find Item Response Theory (IRT) based scores for dichotomous or polytomous items | |

neo | NEO correlation matrix from the NEO_PI_R manual | |

income | US family income from US census 2008 | |

pairs.panels | SPLOM, histograms and correlations for a data matrix | |

r.test | Tests of significance for correlations | |

block.random | Create a block randomized structure for n independent variables | |

iclust | iclust: Item Cluster Analysis -- Hierarchical cluster analysis using psychometric principles | |

phi.demo | A simple demonstration of the Pearson, phi, and polychoric corelation | |

principal | Principal components analysis (PCA) | |

VSS.scree | Plot the successive eigen values for a scree test | |

dummy.code | Create dummy coded variables | |

superMatrix | Form a super matrix from two sub matrices. | |

error.bars.by | Plot means and confidence intervals for multiple groups | |

df2latex | Convert a data frame, correlation matrix, or factor analysis output to a LaTeX table | |

scatter.hist | Draw a scatter plot with associated X and Y histograms, densitie and correlation | |

polychor.matrix | Phi or Yule coefficient matrix to polychoric coefficient matrix | |

affect | Two data sets of affect and arousal scores as a function of personality and movie conditions | |

sim.anova | Simulate a 3 way balanced ANOVA or linear model, with or without repeated measures. | |

set.cor | Set Correlation and Multiple Regression from matrix or raw input | |

fisherz | Fisher r to z and z to r and confidence intervals | |

mardia | Calculate univariate or multivariate (Mardia's test) skew and kurtosis for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

describe | Basic descriptive statistics useful for psychometrics | |

Bechtoldt | Seven data sets showing a bifactor solution. | |

mixed.cor | Find correlations for mixtures of continuous, polytomous, and dichotomous variables | |

smc | Find the Squared Multiple Correlation (SMC) of each variable with the remaining variables in a matrix | |

cor2dist | Convert correlations to distances (necessary to do multidimensional scaling of correlation data) | |

score.alpha | Score scales and find Cronbach's alpha as well as associated statistics | |

tr | Find the trace of a square matrix | |

reverse.code | Reverse the coding of selected items prior to scale analysis | |

sim.hierarchical | Create a population or sample correlation matrix, perhaps with hierarchical structure. | |

vegetables | Paired comparison of preferences for 9 vegetables | |

cohen.kappa | Find Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa coefficients for correlation of two raters | |

epi.bfi | 13 personality scales from the Eysenck Personality Inventory and Big 5 inventory | |

fa.diagram | Graph factor loading matrices | |

lowerUpper | Combine two square matrices to have a lower off diagonal for one, upper off diagonal for the other | |

peas | Galton`s Peas | |

tetrachoric | Tetrachoric, polychoric, biserial and polyserial correlations from various types of input | |

mat.sort | Sort the elements of a correlation matrix to reflect factor loadings | |

score.items | Score item composite scales and find Cronbach's alpha, Guttman lambda 6 and item whole correlations | |

residuals.psych | Extract residuals from various psych objects | |

factor.stats | Find various goodness of fit statistics for factor analysis and principal components | |

fa.parallel | Scree plots of data or correlation matrix compared to random ``parallel" matrices | |

table2matrix | Convert a table with counts to a matrix or data.frame representing those counts. | |

msq | 75 mood items from the Motivational State Questionnaire for 3896 participants | |

sat.act | 3 Measures of ability: SATV, SATQ, ACT | |

fa | Exploratory Factor analysis using MinRes (minimum residual) as well as EFA by Principal Axis, Weighted Least Squares or Maximum Likelihood | |

statsBy | Find statistics (including correlations) within and between groups for basic multilevel analyses | |

simulation.circ | Simulations of circumplex and simple structure | |

factor.model | Find R = F F' + U2 is the basic factor model | |

factor.congruence | Coefficient of factor congruence | |

rangeCorrection | Correct correlations for restriction of range. (Thorndike Case 2) | |

ICC | Intraclass Correlations (ICC1, ICC2, ICC3 from Shrout and Fleiss) | |

cluster.fit | cluster Fit: fit of the cluster model to a correlation matrix | |

sim.VSS | create VSS like data | |

rescale | Function to convert scores to ``conventional " metrics | |

Harman.political | Eight political variables used by Harman (1967) as example 8.17 | |

Yule | From a two by two table, find the Yule coefficients of association, convert to phi, or tetrachoric, recreate table the table to create the Yule coefficient. | |

cor.plot | Create an image plot for a correlation or factor matrix | |

psych.misc | Miscellaneous helper functions for the psych package | |

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## Last month downloads

## Details

Date | 2013-12-12 |

License | GPL (>= 2) |

LazyData | true |

URL | http://personality-project.org/r http://personality-project.org/r/psych.manual.pdf |

Packaged | 2013-12-12 17:10:54 UTC; revelle |

NeedsCompilation | no |

Repository | CRAN |

Date/Publication | 2013-12-12 18:57:36 |

suggests | GPArotation , graph , lavaan , MASS , mvtnorm , polycor , Rcsdp , Rgraphviz , sem |

Contributors | William Revelle |

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