# psych v1.3.2

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## Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research

A number of routines for personality, psychometrics and
experimental psychology. Functions are primarily for scale
construction using factor analysis, cluster analysis and
reliability analysis, although others provide basic descriptive
statistics. Item Response Theory is done using factor analysis
of tetrachoric and polychoric correlations. Functions for
simulating particular item and test structures are included.
Several functions serve as a useful front end for structural
equation modeling. Graphical displays of path diagrams, factor
analysis and structural equation models are created using basic
graphics. Some of the functions are written to support a book
on psychometrics as well as publications in personality
research. For more information, see the
personality-project.org/r webpage.

## Functions in psych

Name | Description | |

ICC | Intraclass Correlations (ICC1, ICC2, ICC3 from Shrout and Fleiss) | |

alpha | Find two estimates of reliability: Cronbach's alpha and Guttman's Lambda 6. | |

SD | Find the Standard deviation for a vector, matrix, or data.frame - do not return error if there are no cases | |

ICLUST.sort | Sort items by absolute size of cluster loadings | |

cushny | A data set from Cushny and Peebles (1905) on the effect of three drugs on hours of sleep, used by Student (1908) | |

Harman | Two data sets from Harman (1967). 9 cognitive variables from Holzinger and 8 emotional variables from Burt | |

cluster.cor | Find correlations of composite variables from a larger matrix | |

epi.bfi | 13 personality scales from the Eysenck Personality Inventory and Big 5 inventory | |

diagram | Helper functions for drawing path model diagrams | |

ICLUST.cluster | Function to form hierarchical cluster analysis of items | |

block.random | Create a block randomized structure for n independent variables | |

fisherz | Fisher r to z and z to r and confidence intervals | |

error.bars | Plot means and confidence intervals | |

bfi | 25 Personality items representing 5 factors | |

Schmid | 12 variables created by Schmid and Leiman to show the Schmid-Leiman Transformation | |

biplot.psych | Draw biplots of factor or component scores by factor or component loadings | |

blot | Bond's Logical Operations Test -- BLOT | |

describe | Basic descriptive statistics useful for psychometrics | |

ICLUST.rgraph | Draw an ICLUST graph using the Rgraphviz package | |

lowerUpper | Combine two square matrices to have a lower off diagonal for one, upper off diagonal for the other | |

burt | 11 emotional variables from Burt (1915) | |

cluster2keys | Convert a cluster vector (from e.g., kmeans) to a keys matrix suitable for scoring item clusters. | |

cor2dist | Convert correlations to distances (necessary to do multidimensional scaling of correlation data) | |

VSS.scree | Plot the successive eigen values for a scree test | |

cortest.bartlett | Bartlett's test that a correlation matrix is an identity matrix | |

eigen.loadings | Convert eigen vectors and eigen values to the more normal (for psychologists) component loadings | |

error.bars.by | Plot means and confidence intervals for multiple groups | |

VSS.parallel | Compare real and random VSS solutions | |

cluster.loadings | Find item by cluster correlations, corrected for overlap and reliability | |

partial.r | Find the partial correlations for a set (x) of variables with set (y) removed. | |

fa.diagram | Graph factor loading matrices | |

cluster.fit | cluster Fit: fit of the cluster model to a correlation matrix | |

fa.sort | Sort factor analysis or principal components analysis loadings | |

Harman.8 | Correlations of eight physical variables (from Harman, 1966) | |

sim.structure | Create correlation matrices or data matrices with a particular measurement and structural model | |

df2latex | Convert a data frame, correlation matrix, or factor analysis output to a LaTeX table | |

plot.psych | Plotting functions for the psych package of class ``psych" | |

corr.test | Find the correlations, sample sizes, and probability values between elements of a matrix or data.frame. | |

heights | A data.frame of the Galton (1888) height and cubit data set. | |

describeBy | Basic summary statistics by group | |

harmonic.mean | Find the harmonic mean of a vector, matrix, or columns of a data.frame | |

Harman.5 | 5 socio-economic variables from Harman (1967) | |

Yule | From a two by two table, find the Yule coefficients of association, convert to phi, or polychoric, recreate table the table to create the Yule coefficient. | |

bock | Bock and Liberman (1970) data set of 1000 observations of the LSAT | |

cosinor | Functions for analysis of circadian or diurnal data | |

cities | Distances between 11 US cities | |

Promax | Perform bifactor, promax or targeted rotations and return the inter factor angles. | |

cluster.plot | Plot factor/cluster loadings and assign items to clusters by their highest loading. | |

galton | Galton's Mid parent child height data | |

kaiser | Apply the Kaiser normalization when rotating factors | |

cortest.mat | Chi square tests of whether a single matrix is an identity matrix, or a pair of matrices are equal. | |

ICLUST.graph | create control code for ICLUST graphical output | |

score.items | Score item composite scales and find Cronbach's alpha, Guttman lambda 6 and item whole correlations | |

geometric.mean | Find the geometric mean of a vector or columns of a data.frame. | |

ellipses | Plot data and 1 and 2 sigma correlation ellipses | |

factor.rotate | ``Hand" rotate a factor loading matrix | |

affect | Two data sets of affect and arousal scores as a function of personality and movie conditions | |

scrub | A utility for basic data cleaning and recoding. Changes values outside of minimum and maximum limits to NA. | |

VSS.plot | Plot VSS fits | |

table2matrix | Convert a table with counts to a matrix or data.frame representing those counts. | |

cor.plot | Create an image plot for a correlation or factor matrix | |

polar | Convert Cartesian factor loadings into polar coordinates | |

income | US family income from US census 2008 | |

count.pairwise | Count number of pairwise cases for a data set with missing (NA) data. | |

Tucker | 9 Cognitive variables discussed by Tucker and Lewis (1973) | |

Dwyer | 8 cognitive variables used by Dwyer for an example. | |

factor2cluster | Extract cluster definitions from factor loadings | |

parcels | Find miniscales (parcels) of size 2 or 3 from a set of items | |

scatter.hist | Draw a scatter plot with associated X and Y histograms, densitie and correlation | |

mat.sort | Sort the elements of a correlation matrix to reflect factor loadings | |

headTail | Combine calls to head and tail | |

factor.stats | Find various goodness of fit statistics for factor analysis and principal components | |

cor.smooth | Smooth a non-positive definite correlation matrix to make it positive definite | |

error.crosses | Plot x and y error bars | |

cor.wt | The sample size weighted correlation may be used in correlating aggregated data | |

circ.tests | Apply four tests of circumplex versus simple structure | |

cta | Simulate the C(ues) T(endency) A(ction) model of motivation | |

mssd | Find von Neuman's Mean Square of Successive Differences | |

score.alpha | Score scales and find Cronbach's alpha as well as associated statistics | |

principal | Principal components analysis (PCA) | |

comorbidity | Convert base rates of two diagnoses and their comorbidity into phi, Yule, and tetrachorics | |

draw.tetra | Draw a correlation ellipse and two normal curves to demonstrate tetrachoric correlation | |

Harman.political | Eight political variables used by Harman (1967) as example 8.17 | |

cubits | Galton's example of the relationship between height and 'cubit' or forearm length | |

Bechtoldt | Seven data sets showing a bifactor solution. | |

structure.list | Create factor model matrices from an input list | |

dummy.code | Create dummy coded variables | |

fa | Exploratory Factor analysis using MinRes (minimum residual) as well as EFA by Principal Axis, Weighted Least Squares or Maximum Likelihood | |

VSS | Apply the Very Simple Structure and MAP criteria to determine the appropriate number of factors. | |

iclust | iclust: Item Cluster Analysis -- Hierarchical cluster analysis using psychometric principles | |

errorCircles | Two way plots of means, error bars, and sample sizes | |

sat.act | 3 Measures of ability: SATV, SATQ, ACT | |

interp.median | Find the interpolated sample median, quartiles, or specific quantiles for a vector, matrix, or data frame | |

mixed.cor | Find correlations for mixtures of continuous, polytomous, and dichotomous variables | |

00.psych | A package for personality, psychometric, and psychological research | |

score.irt | Find Item Response Theory (IRT) based scores for dichotomous or polytomous items | |

thurstone | Thurstone Case V scaling | |

omega.graph | Graph hierarchical factor structures | |

matrix.addition | A function to add two vectors or matrices | |

reverse.code | Reverse the coding of selected items prior to scale analysis | |

r.test | Tests of significance for correlations | |

factor.congruence | Coefficient of factor congruence | |

irt.responses | Plot probability of multiple choice responses as a function of a latent trait | |

pairs.panels | SPLOM, histograms and correlations for a data matrix | |

read.clipboard | shortcut for reading from the clipboard | |

simulation.circ | Simulations of circumplex and simple structure | |

iqitems | 16 multiple choice IQ items | |

psych.misc | Miscellaneous helper functions for the psych package | |

winsor | Find the Winsorized scores, means, sds or variances for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

phi | Find the phi coefficient of correlation between two dichotomous variables | |

residuals.psych | Extract residuals from various psych objects | |

mardia | Calculate univariate or multivariate (Mardia's test) skew and kurtosis for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

sim | Functions to simulate psychological/psychometric data. | |

statsBy | Find statistics (including correlations) within and between groups for basic multilevel analyses | |

p.rep | Find the probability of replication for an F, t, or r and estimate effect size | |

fa.parallel | Scree plots of data or correlation matrix compared to random ``parallel" matrices | |

rescale | Function to convert scores to ``conventional " metrics | |

factor.residuals | R* = R- F F' | |

spider | Make "radar" or "spider" plots. | |

irt.item.diff.rasch | Simple function to estimate item difficulties using IRT concepts | |

sim.hierarchical | Create a population or sample correlation matrix, perhaps with hierarchical structure. | |

iclust.diagram | Draw an ICLUST hierarchical cluster structure diagram | |

smc | Find the Squared Multiple Correlation (SMC) of each variable with the remaining variables in a matrix | |

fa.extension | Apply Dwyer's factor extension to find factor loadings for extended variables | |

tr | Find the trace of a square matrix | |

vegetables | Paired comparison of preferences for 9 vegetables | |

bi.bars | Draw pairs of bargraphs based on two groups | |

structure.diagram | Draw a structural equation model specified by two measurement models and a structural model | |

predict.psych | Prediction function for factor analysis or principal components | |

paired.r | Test the difference between (un)paired correlations | |

withinBetween | An example of the distinction between within group and between group correlations | |

irt.1p | Item Response Theory estimate of theta (ability) using a Rasch (like) model | |

factor.model | Find R = F F' + U2 is the basic factor model | |

factor.fit | How well does the factor model fit a correlation matrix. Part of the VSS package | |

multi.hist | Multiple histograms with density and normal fits on one page | |

msq | 75 mood items from the Motivational State Questionnaire for 3896 participants | |

phi.demo | A simple demonstration of the Pearson, phi, and polychoric corelation | |

factor.scores | Various ways to estimate factor scores for the factor analysis model | |

logistic | Logistic transform from x to p and logit transform from p to x | |

score.multiple.choice | Score multiple choice items and provide basic test statistics | |

sim.anova | Simulate a 3 way balanced ANOVA or linear model, with or without repeated measures. | |

scaling.fits | Test the adequacy of simple choice, logistic, or Thurstonian scaling. | |

tetrachoric | Tetrachoric, polychoric, biserial and polyserial correlations from various types of input | |

correct.cor | Find dis-attenuated correlations given correlations and reliabilities | |

set.cor | Set Correlation and Multiple Regression from matrix or raw input | |

rangeCorrection | Correct correlations for restriction of range. (Thorndike Case 2) | |

test.psych | Testing of functions in the psych package | |

sim.VSS | create VSS like data | |

peas | Galton`s Peas | |

polychor.matrix | Phi or Yule coefficient matrix to polychoric coefficient matrix | |

omega | Calculate McDonald's omega estimates of general and total factor saturation | |

sim.item | Generate simulated data structures for circumplex or simple structure | |

superMatrix | Form a super matrix from two sub matrices. | |

sim.multilevel | Simulate multilevel data with specified within group and between group correlations | |

glb.algebraic | Find the greatest lower bound to reliability. | |

cohen.kappa | Find Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa coefficients for correlation of two raters | |

make.keys | Create a keys matrix for use by score.items or cluster.cor | |

phi2poly | Convert a phi coefficient to a polychoric correlation | |

neo | NEO correlation matrix from the NEO_PI_R manual | |

KMO | Find the Kaiser, Meyer, Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy | |

Gorsuch | Example data set from Gorsuch (1997) for an example factor extension. | |

irt.fa | Item Response Analysis by Exploratory Factor Analysis of tetrachoric/polychoric correlations | |

guttman | Alternative estimates of test reliabiity | |

print.psych | Print and summary functions for the psych class | |

sim.congeneric | Simulate a congeneric data set | |

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## Last month downloads

## Details

Date | 2013-02-28 |

License | GPL (>= 2) |

LazyData | true |

URL | http://personality-project.org/r, http://personality-project.org/r/psych.manual.pdf |

Packaged | 2013-02-26 16:13:45 UTC; revelle |

NeedsCompilation | no |

Repository | CRAN |

Date/Publication | 2013-02-26 17:33:22 |

suggests | GPArotation , graph , lavaan , MASS , mvtnorm , polycor , Rcsdp , Rgraphviz , sem |

Contributors | William Revelle |

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