# psych v1.7.5

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## Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research

A general purpose toolbox for personality, psychometric theory and experimental psychology. Functions are primarily for multivariate analysis and scale construction using factor analysis, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and reliability analysis, although others provide basic descriptive statistics. Item Response Theory is done using factor analysis of tetrachoric and polychoric correlations. Functions for analyzing data at multiple levels include within and between group statistics, including correlations and factor analysis. Functions for simulating and testing particular item and test structures are included. Several functions serve as a useful front end for structural equation modeling. Graphical displays of path diagrams, factor analysis and structural equation models are created using basic graphics. Some of the functions are written to support a book on psychometric theory as well as publications in personality research. For more information, see the <http://personality-project.org/r> web page.

## Functions in psych

Name | Description | |

iclust | iclust: Item Cluster Analysis -- Hierarchical cluster analysis using psychometric principles | |

ICLUST.cluster | Function to form hierarchical cluster analysis of items | |

00.psych | A package for personality, psychometric, and psychological research | |

Gleser | ||

Harman.political | Eight political variables used by Harman (1967) as example 8.17 | |

ICC | Intraclass Correlations (ICC1, ICC2, ICC3 from Shrout and Fleiss) | |

Gorsuch | Example data set from Gorsuch (1997) for an example factor extension. | |

Harman.5 | 5 socio-economic variables from Harman (1967) | |

Harman.8 | Correlations of eight physical variables (from Harman, 1966) | |

Harman | Two data sets from Harman (1967). 9 cognitive variables from Holzinger and 8 emotional variables from Burt | |

ICLUST.graph | create control code for ICLUST graphical output | |

ICLUST.rgraph | Draw an ICLUST graph using the Rgraphviz package | |

VSS.parallel | Compare real and random VSS solutions | |

VSS.plot | Plot VSS fits | |

Promax | Perform bifactor, promax or targeted rotations and return the inter factor angles. | |

SD | Find the Standard deviation for a vector, matrix, or data.frame - do not return error if there are no cases | |

alpha | Find two estimates of reliability: Cronbach's alpha and Guttman's Lambda 6. | |

Tucker | ||

VSS | Apply the Very Simple Structure, MAP, and other criteria to determine the appropriate number of factors. | |

ability | 16 ability items scored as correct or incorrect. | |

affect | Two data sets of affect and arousal scores as a function of personality and movie conditions | |

Schmid | 12 variables created by Schmid and Leiman to show the Schmid-Leiman Transformation | |

Schutz | ||

VSS.scree | Plot the successive eigen values for a scree test | |

Yule | From a two by two table, find the Yule coefficients of association, convert to phi, or tetrachoric, recreate table the table to create the Yule coefficient. | |

ICLUST.sort | Sort items by absolute size of cluster loadings | |

KMO | Find the Kaiser, Meyer, Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy | |

block.random | Create a block randomized structure for n independent variables | |

blot | Bond's Logical Operations Test -- BLOT | |

cor.plot | Create an image plot for a correlation or factor matrix | |

cor.smooth | Smooth a non-positive definite correlation matrix to make it positive definite | |

cortest.mat | Chi square tests of whether a single matrix is an identity matrix, or a pair of matrices are equal. | |

cosinor | Functions for analysis of circadian or diurnal data | |

bfi | 25 Personality items representing 5 factors | |

bi.bars | Draw pairs of bargraphs based on two groups | |

Bechtoldt | Seven data sets showing a bifactor solution. | |

bestScales | A set of functions for factorial and empirical scale construction | |

cattell | 12 cognitive variables from Cattell (1963) | |

circ.tests | Apply four tests of circumplex versus simple structure | |

comorbidity | Convert base rates of two diagnoses and their comorbidity into phi, Yule, and tetrachorics | |

biplot.psych | Draw biplots of factor or component scores by factor or component loadings | |

df2latex | Convert a data frame, correlation matrix, or factor analysis output to a LaTeX table | |

dfOrder | Sort (order) a dataframe or matrix by multiple columns | |

cor.wt | The sample size weighted correlation may be used in correlating aggregated data | |

cor2dist | Convert correlations to distances (necessary to do multidimensional scaling of correlation data) | |

correct.cor | Find dis-attenuated correlations given correlations and reliabilities | |

cortest.bartlett | Bartlett's test that a correlation matrix is an identity matrix | |

dummy.code | Create dummy coded variables | |

Dwyer | 8 cognitive variables used by Dwyer for an example. | |

cities | Distances between 11 US cities | |

scoreOverlap | Find correlations of composite variables (corrected for overlap) from a larger matrix. | |

cluster.plot | Plot factor/cluster loadings and assign items to clusters by their highest loading. | |

eigen.loadings | Convert eigen vectors and eigen values to the more normal (for psychologists) component loadings | |

ellipses | Plot data and 1 and 2 sigma correlation ellipses | |

factor.rotate | ``Hand" rotate a factor loading matrix | |

factor.scores | Various ways to estimate factor scores for the factor analysis model | |

diagram | Helper functions for drawing path model diagrams | |

draw.tetra | Draw a correlation ellipse and two normal curves to demonstrate tetrachoric correlation | |

factor.model | Find R = F F' + U2 is the basic factor model | |

factor.residuals | R* = R- F F' | |

bock | Bock and Liberman (1970) data set of 1000 observations of the LSAT | |

burt | 11 emotional variables from Burt (1915) | |

cluster.fit | cluster Fit: fit of the cluster model to a correlation matrix | |

cluster.loadings | Find item by cluster correlations, corrected for overlap and reliability | |

corFiml | Find a Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) correlation or covariance matrix from a data matrix with missing data | |

corr.test | Find the correlations, sample sizes, and probability values between elements of a matrix or data.frame. | |

fa.poly | Deprecated Exploratory Factor analysis functions. Please use fa | |

cluster2keys | Convert a cluster vector (from e.g., kmeans) to a keys matrix suitable for scoring item clusters. | |

cubits | Galton's example of the relationship between height and 'cubit' or forearm length | |

cushny | ||

describe | Basic descriptive statistics useful for psychometrics | |

describeBy | Basic summary statistics by group | |

epi | Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) data for 3570 participants | |

epi.bfi | 13 personality scales from the Eysenck Personality Inventory and Big 5 inventory | |

fa | Exploratory Factor analysis using MinRes (minimum residual) as well as EFA by Principal Axis, Weighted Least Squares or Maximum Likelihood | |

densityBy | Create a 'violin plot' or density plot of the distribution of a set of variables | |

errorCircles | Two way plots of means, error bars, and sample sizes | |

error.crosses | Plot x and y error bars | |

fa.extension | Apply Dwyer's factor extension to find factor loadings for extended variables | |

fa.parallel | Scree plots of data or correlation matrix compared to random ``parallel" matrices | |

interp.median | Find the interpolated sample median, quartiles, or specific quantiles for a vector, matrix, or data frame | |

iqitems | 16 multiple choice IQ items | |

kaiser | Apply the Kaiser normalization when rotating factors | |

cohen.kappa | Find Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa coefficients for correlation of two raters | |

error.bars | Plot means and confidence intervals | |

error.bars.by | Plot means and confidence intervals for multiple groups | |

fa.sort | Sort factor analysis or principal components analysis loadings | |

fisherz | Transformations of r including Fisher r to z and z to r and confidence intervals | |

galton | Galton's Mid parent child height data | |

iclust.diagram | Draw an ICLUST hierarchical cluster structure diagram | |

income | US family income from US census 2008 | |

cor.ci | Bootstrapped confidence intervals for raw and composite correlations | |

count.pairwise | Count number of pairwise cases for a data set with missing (NA) data. | |

cta | Simulate the C(ues) T(endency) A(ction) model of motivation | |

error.dots | Show a dot.chart with error bars for different groups or variables | |

fa.multi | Multi level (hierarchical) factor analysis | |

geometric.mean | Find the geometric mean of a vector or columns of a data.frame. | |

glb.algebraic | Find the greatest lower bound to reliability. | |

psych.misc | Miscellaneous helper functions for the psych package | |

make.keys | Create a keys matrix for use by score.items or cluster.cor | |

mat.sort | Sort the elements of a correlation matrix to reflect factor loadings | |

multi.hist | Multiple histograms with density and normal fits on one page | |

multilevel.reliability | Find and plot various reliability/gneralizability coefficients for multilevel data | |

scoreIrt | Find Item Response Theory (IRT) based scores for dichotomous or polytomous items | |

scoreItems | Score item composite scales and find Cronbach's alpha, Guttman lambda 6 and item whole correlations | |

sim.item | Generate simulated data structures for circumplex, spherical, or simple structure | |

mixedCor | Find correlations for mixtures of continuous, polytomous, and dichotomous variables | |

phi2tetra | Convert a phi coefficient to a tetrachoric correlation | |

plot.psych | Plotting functions for the psych package of class ``psych" | |

msq | 75 mood items from the Motivational State Questionnaire for 3896 participants | |

mssd | Find von Neuman's Mean Square of Successive Differences | |

pairs.panels | SPLOM, histograms and correlations for a data matrix | |

splitHalf | Alternative estimates of test reliabiity | |

harmonic.mean | Find the harmonic mean of a vector, matrix, or columns of a data.frame | |

irt.fa | Item Response Analysis by Exploratory Factor Analysis of tetrachoric/polychoric correlations | |

irt.item.diff.rasch | Simple function to estimate item difficulties using IRT concepts | |

esem | Perform and Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM) by using factor extension techniques | |

factor.congruence | Coefficient of factor congruence | |

factor.fit | How well does the factor model fit a correlation matrix. Part of the VSS package | |

factor.stats | Find various goodness of fit statistics for factor analysis and principal components | |

print.psych | Print and summary functions for the psych class | |

r.test | Tests of significance for correlations | |

sim.VSS | create VSS like data | |

sim.anova | Simulate a 3 way balanced ANOVA or linear model, with or without repeated measures. | |

structure.diagram | Draw a structural equation model specified by two measurement models and a structural model | |

structure.list | Create factor model matrices from an input list | |

matrix.addition | A function to add two vectors or matrices | |

mediate | Estimate and display direct and indirect effects of mediators and moderator in path models | |

p.rep | Find the probability of replication for an F, t, or r and estimate effect size | |

paired.r | Test the difference between (un)paired correlations | |

sim.multilevel | Simulate multilevel data with specified within group and between group correlations | |

withinBetween | An example of the distinction between within group and between group correlations | |

factor2cluster | Extract cluster definitions from factor loadings | |

headTail | Combine calls to head and tail | |

heights | A data.frame of the Galton (1888) height and cubit data set. | |

omega.graph | Graph hierarchical factor structures | |

parcels | Find miniscales (parcels) of size 2 or 3 from a set of items | |

rangeCorrection | Correct correlations for restriction of range. (Thorndike Case 2) | |

read.file | Shortcuts for reading from the clipboard or a file | |

polar | Convert Cartesian factor loadings into polar coordinates | |

polychor.matrix | Phi or Yule coefficient matrix to polychoric coefficient matrix | |

predict.psych | Prediction function for factor analysis or principal components | |

principal | Principal components analysis (PCA) | |

score.multiple.choice | Score multiple choice items and provide basic test statistics | |

scrub | A utility for basic data cleaning and recoding. Changes values outside of minimum and maximum limits to NA. | |

mardia | Calculate univariate or multivariate (Mardia's test) skew and kurtosis for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

smc | Find the Squared Multiple Correlation (SMC) of each variable with the remaining variables in a matrix | |

test.irt | A simple demonstration (and test) of various IRT scoring algorthims. | |

test.psych | Testing of functions in the psych package | |

outlier | Find and graph Mahalanobis squared distances to detect outliers | |

phi | Find the phi coefficient of correlation between two dichotomous variables | |

phi.demo | A simple demonstration of the Pearson, phi, and polychoric corelation | |

reverse.code | Reverse the coding of selected items prior to scale analysis | |

setCor | Set Correlation and Multiple Regression from matrix or raw input | |

sim | Functions to simulate psychological/psychometric data. | |

tetrachoric | Tetrachoric, polychoric, biserial and polyserial correlations from various types of input | |

thurstone | Thurstone Case V scaling | |

fa.diagram | Graph factor loading matrices | |

irt.1p | Item Response Theory estimate of theta (ability) using a Rasch (like) model | |

irt.responses | Plot probability of multiple choice responses as a function of a latent trait | |

logistic | Logistic transform from x to p and logit transform from p to x | |

vegetables | Paired comparison of preferences for 9 vegetables | |

winsor | Find the Winsorized scores, means, sds or variances for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

sat.act | 3 Measures of ability: SATV, SATQ, ACT | |

scaling.fits | Test the adequacy of simple choice, logistic, or Thurstonian scaling. | |

scatterHist | Draw a scatter plot with associated X and Y histograms, densities and correlation | |

simulation.circ | Simulations of circumplex and simple structure | |

superMatrix | Form a super matrix from two sub matrices. | |

table2matrix | Convert a table with counts to a matrix or data.frame representing those counts. | |

lowerUpper | Combine two square matrices to have a lower off diagonal for one, upper off diagonal for the other | |

neo | NEO correlation matrix from the NEO_PI_R manual | |

omega | Calculate McDonald's omega estimates of general and total factor saturation | |

partial.r | Find the partial correlations for a set (x) of variables with set (y) removed. | |

sim.structure | Create correlation matrices or data matrices with a particular measurement and structural model | |

peas | Galton`s Peas | |

rescale | Function to convert scores to ``conventional | |

residuals.psych | Extract residuals from various psych objects | |

schmid | Apply the Schmid Leiman transformation to a correlation matrix | |

score.alpha | Score scales and find Cronbach's alpha as well as associated statistics | |

sim.congeneric | Simulate a congeneric data set | |

sim.hierarchical | Create a population or sample correlation matrix, perhaps with hierarchical structure. | |

spider | Make "radar" or "spider" plots. | |

statsBy | Find statistics (including correlations) within and between groups for basic multilevel analyses | |

tr | Find the trace of a square matrix | |

unidim | Several indices of the unidimensionality of a set of variables. | |

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## Last month downloads

## Details

Date | 2017-05-01 |

License | GPL (>= 2) |

LazyData | true |

URL | http://personality-project.org/r/psych http://personality-project.org/r/psych-manual.pdf |

NeedsCompilation | no |

Packaged | 2017-05-02 23:28:02 UTC; WR |

Repository | CRAN |

Date/Publication | 2017-05-03 07:34:19 UTC |

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