# psych v1.8.10

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## Procedures for Psychological, Psychometric, and Personality Research

A general purpose toolbox for personality, psychometric theory and experimental psychology. Functions are primarily for multivariate analysis and scale construction using factor analysis, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and reliability analysis, although others provide basic descriptive statistics. Item Response Theory is done using factor analysis of tetrachoric and polychoric correlations. Functions for analyzing data at multiple levels include within and between group statistics, including correlations and factor analysis. Functions for simulating and testing particular item and test structures are included. Several functions serve as a useful front end for structural equation modeling. Graphical displays of path diagrams, factor analysis and structural equation models are created using basic graphics. Some of the functions are written to support a book on psychometric theory as well as publications in personality research. For more information, see the <https://personality-project.org/r> web page.

## Functions in psych

Name | Description | |

00.psych | A package for personality, psychometric, and psychological research | |

VSS | Apply the Very Simple Structure, MAP, and other criteria to determine the appropriate number of factors. | |

VSS.parallel | Compare real and random VSS solutions | |

Yule | From a two by two table, find the Yule coefficients of association, convert to phi, or tetrachoric, recreate table the table to create the Yule coefficient. | |

ability | 16 ability items scored as correct or incorrect. | |

Gorsuch | Example data set from Gorsuch (1997) for an example factor extension. | |

affect | Two data sets of affect and arousal scores as a function of personality and movie conditions | |

Harman | Five data sets from Harman (1967). 9 cognitive variables from Holzinger and 8 emotional variables from Burt | |

ICC | Intraclass Correlations (ICC1, ICC2, ICC3 from Shrout and Fleiss) | |

block.random | Create a block randomized structure for n independent variables | |

iclust | iclust: Item Cluster Analysis -- Hierarchical cluster analysis using psychometric principles | |

ICLUST.cluster | Function to form hierarchical cluster analysis of items | |

ICLUST.rgraph | Draw an ICLUST graph using the Rgraphviz package | |

ICLUST.sort | Sort items by absolute size of cluster loadings | |

blot | Bond's Logical Operations Test -- BLOT | |

ICLUST.graph | create control code for ICLUST graphical output | |

alpha | Find two estimates of reliability: Cronbach's alpha and Guttman's Lambda 6. | |

SD | Find the Standard deviation for a vector, matrix, or data.frame - do not return error if there are no cases | |

cohen.d | Find Cohen d and confidence intervals | |

Schmid | 12 variables created by Schmid and Leiman to show the Schmid-Leiman Transformation | |

cortest.bartlett | Bartlett's test that a correlation matrix is an identity matrix | |

KMO | Find the Kaiser, Meyer, Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy | |

cattell | 12 cognitive variables from Cattell (1963) | |

bi.bars | Draw pairs of bargraphs based on two groups | |

Bechtoldt | Seven data sets showing a bifactor solution. | |

biplot.psych | Draw biplots of factor or component scores by factor or component loadings | |

Promax | Perform Procustes,bifactor, promax or targeted rotations and return the inter factor angles. | |

circ.tests | Apply four tests of circumplex versus simple structure | |

bestScales | A bootstrap aggregation (bagging) function for choosing most predictive items | |

blant | A 29 x 29 matrix that produces weird factor analytic results | |

cor.smooth | Smooth a non-positive definite correlation matrix to make it positive definite | |

cortest.mat | Chi square tests of whether a single matrix is an identity matrix, or a pair of matrices are equal. | |

bfi | 25 Personality items representing 5 factors | |

cor.wt | The sample size weighted correlation may be used in correlating aggregated data | |

bock | Bock and Liberman (1970) data set of 1000 observations of the LSAT | |

comorbidity | Convert base rates of two diagnoses and their comorbidity into phi, Yule, and tetrachorics | |

cta | Simulate the C(ues) T(endency) A(ction) model of motivation | |

burt | 11 emotional variables from Burt (1915) | |

fa.poly | Deprecated Exploratory Factor analysis functions. Please use fa | |

cluster.plot | Plot factor/cluster loadings and assign items to clusters by their highest loading. | |

cubits | Galton's example of the relationship between height and 'cubit' or forearm length | |

Dwyer | 8 cognitive variables used by Dwyer for an example. | |

error.bars.by | Plot means and confidence intervals for multiple groups | |

describe | Basic descriptive statistics useful for psychometrics | |

describeBy | Basic summary statistics by group | |

errorCircles | Two way plots of means, error bars, and sample sizes | |

df2latex | Convert a data frame, correlation matrix, or factor analysis output to a LaTeX table | |

epi.bfi | 13 personality scales from the Eysenck Personality Inventory and Big 5 inventory | |

cor.plot | Create an image plot for a correlation or factor matrix | |

cor.ci | Bootstrapped confidence intervals for raw and composite correlations | |

error.bars | Plot means and confidence intervals | |

cor2dist | Convert correlations to distances (necessary to do multidimensional scaling of correlation data) | |

esem | Perform and Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM) by using factor extension techniques | |

fa | Exploratory Factor analysis using MinRes (minimum residual) as well as EFA by Principal Axis, Weighted Least Squares or Maximum Likelihood | |

factor.scores | Various ways to estimate factor scores for the factor analysis model | |

eigen.loadings | Convert eigen vectors and eigen values to the more normal (for psychologists) component loadings | |

headTail | Combine calls to head and tail | |

factor.stats | Find various goodness of fit statistics for factor analysis and principal components | |

heights | A data.frame of the Galton (1888) height and cubit data set. | |

msq | 75 mood items from the Motivational State Questionnaire for 3896 participants | |

fa.lookup | A set of functions for factorial and empirical scale construction | |

corFiml | Find a Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML) correlation or covariance matrix from a data matrix with missing data | |

Garcia | Data from the sexism (protest) study of Garcia, Schmitt, Branscome, and Ellemers (2010) | |

fa.parallel | Scree plots of data or correlation matrix compared to random ``parallel" matrices | |

msqR | 75 mood items from the Motivational State Questionnaire for 3032 unique participants | |

dfOrder | Sort (order) a dataframe or matrix by multiple columns | |

fa.random | A first approximation to Random Effects Exploratory Factor Analysis | |

fa.sort | Sort factor analysis or principal components analysis loadings | |

splitHalf | Alternative estimates of test reliabiity | |

harmonic.mean | Find the harmonic mean of a vector, matrix, or columns of a data.frame | |

Gleser | Example data from Gleser, Cronbach and Rajaratnam (1965) to show basic principles of generalizability theory. | |

cluster2keys | Convert a cluster vector (from e.g., kmeans) to a keys matrix suitable for scoring item clusters. | |

fisherz | Transformations of r, d, and t including Fisher r to z and z to r and confidence intervals | |

corr.test | Find the correlations, sample sizes, and probability values between elements of a matrix or data.frame. | |

correct.cor | Find dis-attenuated correlations given correlations and reliabilities | |

galton | Galton's Mid parent child height data | |

omega.graph | Graph hierarchical factor structures | |

omega | Calculate McDonald's omega estimates of general and total factor saturation | |

phi.demo | A simple demonstration of the Pearson, phi, and polychoric corelation | |

diagram | Helper functions for drawing path model diagrams | |

geometric.mean | Find the geometric mean of a vector or columns of a data.frame. | |

error.crosses | Plot x and y error bars | |

error.dots | Show a dot.chart with error bars for different groups or variables | |

irt.fa | Item Response Analysis by Exploratory Factor Analysis of tetrachoric/polychoric correlations | |

fa.diagram | Graph factor loading matrices | |

irt.item.diff.rasch | Simple function to estimate item difficulties using IRT concepts | |

phi2tetra | Convert a phi coefficient to a tetrachoric correlation | |

psych.misc | Miscellaneous helper functions for the psych package | |

fa.extension | Apply Dwyer's factor extension to find factor loadings for extended variables | |

mixedCor | Find correlations for mixtures of continuous, polytomous, and dichotomous variables | |

schmid | Apply the Schmid Leiman transformation to a correlation matrix | |

cushny | A data set from Cushny and Peebles (1905) on the effect of three drugs on hours of sleep, used by Student (1908) | |

densityBy | Create a 'violin plot' or density plot of the distribution of a set of variables | |

Schutz | The Schutz correlation matrix example from Shapiro and ten Berge | |

peas | Galton`s Peas | |

glb.algebraic | Find the greatest lower bound to reliability. | |

factor.fit | How well does the factor model fit a correlation matrix. Part of the VSS package | |

kaiser | Apply the Kaiser normalization when rotating factors | |

cohen.kappa | Find Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa coefficients for correlation of two raters | |

factor.model | Find R = F F' + U2 is the basic factor model | |

ellipses | Plot data and 1 and 2 sigma correlation ellipses | |

Tucker | 9 Cognitive variables discussed by Tucker and Lewis (1973) | |

phi | Find the phi coefficient of correlation between two dichotomous variables | |

principal | Principal components analysis (PCA) | |

make.keys | Create a keys matrix for use by score.items or cluster.cor | |

outlier | Find and graph Mahalanobis squared distances to detect outliers | |

VSS.plot | Plot VSS fits | |

p.rep | Find the probability of replication for an F, t, or r and estimate effect size | |

mat.sort | Sort the elements of a correlation matrix to reflect factor loadings | |

matrix.addition | A function to add two vectors or matrices | |

score.alpha | Score scales and find Cronbach's alpha as well as associated statistics | |

VSS.scree | Plot the successive eigen values for a scree test | |

epi | Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) data for 3570 participants | |

print.psych | Print and summary functions for the psych class | |

fa.multi | Multi level (hierarchical) factor analysis | |

cities | Distances between 11 US cities | |

sim.VSS | create VSS like data | |

scoreOverlap | Find correlations of composite variables (corrected for overlap) from a larger matrix. | |

cluster.fit | cluster Fit: fit of the cluster model to a correlation matrix | |

cluster.loadings | Find item by cluster correlations, corrected for overlap and reliability | |

factor.congruence | Coefficient of factor congruence | |

residuals.psych | Extract residuals from various psych objects | |

reverse.code | Reverse the coding of selected items prior to scale analysis | |

sim.anova | Simulate a 3 way balanced ANOVA or linear model, with or without repeated measures. | |

mediate | Estimate and display direct and indirect effects of mediators and moderator in path models | |

factor2cluster | Extract cluster definitions from factor loadings | |

structure.list | Create factor model matrices from an input list | |

iclust.diagram | Draw an ICLUST hierarchical cluster structure diagram | |

Utility | Useful utility functions for file/directory exploration and manipulation. | |

income | US family income from US census 2008 | |

superMatrix | Form a super matrix from two sub matrices. | |

logistic | Logistic transform from x to p and logit transform from p to x | |

lowerUpper | Combine two square matrices to have a lower off diagonal for one, upper off diagonal for the other | |

mssd | Find von Neuman's Mean Square of Successive Differences | |

multi.hist | Multiple histograms with density and normal fits on one page | |

sai | State Anxiety data from the PMC lab over multiple occasions. | |

scoreIrt | Find Item Response Theory (IRT) based scores for dichotomous or polytomous items | |

sat.act | 3 Measures of ability: SATV, SATQ, ACT | |

paired.r | Test the difference between (un)paired correlations | |

setCor | Set Correlation and Multiple Regression from matrix or raw input | |

pairs.panels | SPLOM, histograms and correlations for a data matrix | |

sim | Functions to simulate psychological/psychometric data. | |

parcels | Find miniscales (parcels) of size 2 or 3 from a set of items | |

spi | A sample from the SAPA Personality Inventory including an item dictionary and scoring keys. | |

scoreItems | Score item composite scales and find Cronbach's alpha, Guttman lambda 6 and item whole correlations | |

statsBy | Find statistics (including correlations) within and between groups for basic multilevel analyses | |

cosinor | Functions for analysis of circadian or diurnal data | |

spider | Make "radar" or "spider" plots. | |

pairwiseCount | Count number of pairwise cases for a data set with missing (NA) data and impute values. | |

structure.diagram | Draw a structural equation model specified by two measurement models and a structural model | |

plot.psych | Plotting functions for the psych package of class ``psych" | |

partial.r | Find the partial correlations for a set (x) of variables with set (y) removed. | |

table2matrix | Convert a table with counts to a matrix or data.frame representing those counts. | |

winsor | Find the Winsorized scores, means, sds or variances for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

Tal_Or | Data set testing causal direction in presumed media influence | |

test.irt | A simple demonstration (and test) of various IRT scoring algorthims. | |

withinBetween | An example of the distinction between within group and between group correlations | |

test.psych | Testing of functions in the psych package | |

polychor.matrix | Phi or Yule coefficient matrix to polychoric coefficient matrix | |

polar | Convert Cartesian factor loadings into polar coordinates | |

predict.psych | Prediction function for factor analysis or principal components | |

scaling.fits | Test the adequacy of simple choice, logistic, or Thurstonian scaling. | |

score.multiple.choice | Score multiple choice items and provide basic test statistics | |

scrub | A utility for basic data cleaning and recoding. Changes values outside of minimum and maximum limits to NA. | |

mardia | Calculate univariate or multivariate (Mardia's test) skew and kurtosis for a vector, matrix, or data.frame | |

draw.tetra | Draw a correlation ellipse and two normal curves to demonstrate tetrachoric correlation | |

dummy.code | Create dummy coded variables | |

smc | Find the Squared Multiple Correlation (SMC) of each variable with the remaining variables in a matrix | |

testRetest | Find various test-retest statistics, including test, person and item reliability | |

tetrachoric | Tetrachoric, polychoric, biserial and polyserial correlations from various types of input | |

factor.residuals | R* = R- F F' | |

scatterHist | Draw a scatter plot with associated X and Y histograms, densities and correlation | |

sim.congeneric | Simulate a congeneric data set | |

sim.hierarchical | Create a population or sample correlation matrix, perhaps with hierarchical structure. | |

sim.item | Generate simulated data structures for circumplex, spherical, or simple structure | |

sim.multilevel | Simulate multilevel data with specified within group and between group correlations | |

thurstone | Thurstone Case V scaling | |

tr | Find the trace of a square matrix | |

interp.median | Find the interpolated sample median, quartiles, or specific quantiles for a vector, matrix, or data frame | |

factor.rotate | ``Hand" rotate a factor loading matrix | |

unidim | Several indices of the unidimensionality of a set of variables. | |

vegetables | Paired comparison of preferences for 9 vegetables | |

iqitems | 16 multiple choice IQ items | |

irt.1p | Item Response Theory estimate of theta (ability) using a Rasch (like) model | |

irt.responses | Plot probability of multiple choice responses as a function of a latent trait | |

multilevel.reliability | Find and plot various reliability/gneralizability coefficients for multilevel data | |

neo | NEO correlation matrix from the NEO_PI_R manual | |

r.test | Tests of significance for correlations | |

rangeCorrection | Correct correlations for restriction of range. (Thorndike Case 2) | |

read.file | Shortcuts for reading from the clipboard or a file | |

rescale | Function to convert scores to ``conventional " metrics | |

sim.structure | Create correlation matrices or data matrices with a particular measurement and structural model | |

simulation.circ | Simulations of circumplex and simple structure | |

AUC | Decision Theory measures of specificity, sensitivity, and d prime | |

No Results! |

## Vignettes of psych

Name | ||

intro.Rnw | ||

overview.Rnw | ||

psych_for_sem.Rnw | ||

No Results! |

## Last month downloads

## Details

Date | 2018-10-24 |

License | GPL (>= 2) |

LazyData | true |

ByteCompile | TRUE |

URL | https://personality-project.org/r/psych https://personality-project.org/r/psych-manual.pdf |

NeedsCompilation | no |

Packaged | 2018-10-30 20:28:29 UTC; wr |

Repository | CRAN |

Date/Publication | 2018-10-31 11:10:03 UTC |

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