Although many uses of factor analysis/cluster analysis assume a simple structure where items have one and only one large loading, some domains such as personality or affect items have a more complex structure and some items have high loadings on two factors. (These items are said to have complexity 2, see `VSS`

). By expressing the factor loadings in polar coordinates, this structure is more readily perceived.

For each pair of factors, item loadings are converted to an angle with the first factor, and a vector length corresponding to the amount of variance in the item shared with the two factors.

For a two dimensional structure, this will lead to a column of angles and a column of vector lengths. For n factors, this leads to n* (n-1)/2 columns of angles and an equivalent number of vector lengths.