```
## Classification:
##data(iris)
set.seed(71)
iris.rf <- randomForest(Species ~ ., data=iris, importance=TRUE,
proximity=TRUE)
print(iris.rf)
## Look at variable importance:
round(importance(iris.rf), 2)
## Do MDS on 1 - proximity:
iris.mds <- cmdscale(1 - iris.rf$proximity, eig=TRUE)
op <- par(pty="s")
pairs(cbind(iris[,1:4], iris.mds$points), cex=0.6, gap=0,
col=c("red", "green", "blue")[as.numeric(iris$Species)],
main="Iris Data: Predictors and MDS of Proximity Based on RandomForest")
par(op)
print(iris.mds$GOF)
## The `unsupervised' case:
set.seed(17)
iris.urf <- randomForest(iris[, -5])
MDSplot(iris.urf, iris$Species)
## stratified sampling: draw 20, 30, and 20 of the species to grow each tree.
(iris.rf2 <- randomForest(iris[1:4], iris$Species,
sampsize=c(20, 30, 20)))
## Regression:
## data(airquality)
set.seed(131)
ozone.rf <- randomForest(Ozone ~ ., data=airquality, mtry=3,
importance=TRUE, na.action=na.omit)
print(ozone.rf)
## Show "importance" of variables: higher value mean more important:
round(importance(ozone.rf), 2)
## "x" can be a matrix instead of a data frame:
set.seed(17)
x <- matrix(runif(5e2), 100)
y <- gl(2, 50)
(myrf <- randomForest(x, y))
(predict(myrf, x))
## "complicated" formula:
(swiss.rf <- randomForest(sqrt(Fertility) ~ . - Catholic + I(Catholic < 50),
data=swiss))
(predict(swiss.rf, swiss))
## Test use of 32-level factor as a predictor:
set.seed(1)
x <- data.frame(x1=gl(53, 10), x2=runif(530), y=rnorm(530))
(rf1 <- randomForest(x[-3], x[[3]], ntree=10))
## Grow no more than 4 nodes per tree:
(treesize(randomForest(Species ~ ., data=iris, maxnodes=4, ntree=30)))
## test proximity in regression
iris.rrf <- randomForest(iris[-1], iris[[1]], ntree=101, proximity=TRUE, oob.prox=FALSE)
str(iris.rrf$proximity)
## Using weights: make versicolors having 3 times larger weights
iris_wt <- ifelse( iris$Species == "versicolor", 3, 1 )
set.seed(15)
iris.wcrf <- randomForest(iris[-5], iris[[5]], weights=iris_wt, keep.inbag=TRUE)
print(rowSums(iris.wcrf$inbag))
set.seed(15)
iris.wrrf <- randomForest(iris[-1], iris[[1]], weights=iris_wt, keep.inbag=TRUE)
print(rowSums(iris.wrrf$inbag))
```

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