Make a Raster object with predictions from a fitted model object (for example, obtained with `lm`

, `glm`

). The first argument is a Raster object with the independent (predictor) variables. The `names`

in the Raster object should exactly match those expected by the model. This will be the case if the same Raster object was used (via `extract`

) to obtain the values to fit the model (see the example). Any type of model (e.g. glm, gam, randomForest) for which a predict method has been implemented (or can be implemented) can be used.

This approach (predict a fitted model to raster data) is commonly used in remote sensing (for the classification of satellite images) and in ecology, for species distribution modeling.

```
# S4 method for Raster
predict(object, model, filename="", fun=predict, ext=NULL,
const=NULL, index=1, na.rm=TRUE, inf.rm=FALSE, factors=NULL,
format, datatype, overwrite=FALSE, progress='', ...)
```

object

Raster* object. Typically a multi-layer type (RasterStack or RasterBrick)

model

fitted model of any class that has a 'predict' method (or for which you can supply a similar method as `fun`

argument. E.g. glm, gam, or randomForest

filename

character. Optional output filename

fun

function. Default value is 'predict', but can be replaced with e.g. predict.se (depending on the type of model), or your own custom function.

ext

Extent object to limit the prediction to a sub-region of `x`

const

data.frame. Can be used to add a constant for which there is no Raster object for model predictions. Particularly useful if the constant is a character-like factor value for which it is currently not possible to make a RasterLayer

index

integer. To select the column(s) to use if predict.'model' returns a matrix with multiple columns

na.rm

logical. Remove cells with `NA`

values in the predictors before solving the model (and return a `NA`

value for those cells). This option prevents errors with models that cannot handle `NA`

values. In most other cases this will not affect the output. An exception is when predicting with a boosted regression trees model because these return predicted values even if some (or all!) variables are `NA`

inf.rm

logical. Remove cells with values that are not finite (some models will fail with -Inf/Inf values). This option is ignored when `na.rm=FALSE`

factors

list with levels for factor variables. The list elements should be named with names that correspond to names in `object`

such that they can be matched. This argument may be omitted for standard models such as 'glm' as the predict function will extract the levels from the `model`

object, but it is necessary in some other cases (e.g. cforest models from the party package)

format

character. Output file type. See writeRaster (optional)

datatype

character. Output data type. See dataType (optional)

overwrite

logical. If TRUE, "filename" will be overwritten if it exists

progress

character. "text", "window", or "" (the default, no progress bar)

...

additional arguments to pass to the predict.'model' function

RasterLayer or RasterBrick

Use `interpolate`

if your model has 'x' and 'y' as implicit independent variables (e.g., in kriging).

# NOT RUN { # A simple model to predict the location of the R in the R-logo using 20 presence points # and 50 (random) pseudo-absence points. This type of model is often used to predict # species distributions. See the dismo package for more of that. # create a RasterStack or RasterBrick with with a set of predictor layers logo <- brick(system.file("external/rlogo.grd", package="raster")) names(logo) # } # NOT RUN { # the predictor variables par(mfrow=c(2,2)) plotRGB(logo, main='logo') plot(logo, 1, col=rgb(cbind(0:255,0,0), maxColorValue=255)) plot(logo, 2, col=rgb(cbind(0,0:255,0), maxColorValue=255)) plot(logo, 3, col=rgb(cbind(0,0,0:255), maxColorValue=255)) par(mfrow=c(1,1)) # } # NOT RUN { # known presence and absence points p <- matrix(c(48, 48, 48, 53, 50, 46, 54, 70, 84, 85, 74, 84, 95, 85, 66, 42, 26, 4, 19, 17, 7, 14, 26, 29, 39, 45, 51, 56, 46, 38, 31, 22, 34, 60, 70, 73, 63, 46, 43, 28), ncol=2) a <- matrix(c(22, 33, 64, 85, 92, 94, 59, 27, 30, 64, 60, 33, 31, 9, 99, 67, 15, 5, 4, 30, 8, 37, 42, 27, 19, 69, 60, 73, 3, 5, 21, 37, 52, 70, 74, 9, 13, 4, 17, 47), ncol=2) # extract values for points xy <- rbind(cbind(1, p), cbind(0, a)) v <- data.frame(cbind(pa=xy[,1], extract(logo, xy[,2:3]))) #build a model, here an example with glm model <- glm(formula=pa~., data=v) #predict to a raster r1 <- predict(logo, model, progress='text') plot(r1) points(p, bg='blue', pch=21) points(a, bg='red', pch=21) # use a modified function to get a RasterBrick with p and se # from the glm model. The values returned by 'predict' are in a list, # and this list needs to be transformed to a matrix predfun <- function(model, data) { v <- predict(model, data, se.fit=TRUE) cbind(p=as.vector(v$fit), se=as.vector(v$se.fit)) } # predfun returns two variables, so use index=1:2 r2 <- predict(logo, model, fun=predfun, index=1:2) # } # NOT RUN { # You can use multiple cores to speed up the predict function # by calling it via the clusterR function (you may need to install the snow package) beginCluster() r1c <- clusterR(logo, predict, args=list(model)) r2c <- clusterR(logo, predict, args=list(model=model, fun=predfun, index=1:2)) # } # NOT RUN { # principal components of a RasterBrick # here using sampling to simulate an object too large # to feed all its values to prcomp sr <- sampleRandom(logo, 100) pca <- prcomp(sr) # note the use of the 'index' argument x <- predict(logo, pca, index=1:3) plot(x) # } # NOT RUN { # partial least square regression library(pls) model <- plsr(formula=pa~., data=v) # this returns an array: predict(model, v[1:5,]) # write a function to turn that into a matrix pfun <- function(x, data) { y <- predict(x, data) d <- dim(y) dim(y) <- c(prod(d[1:2]), d[3]) y } pp <- predict(logo, model, fun=pfun, index=1:3) # Random Forest library(randomForest) rfmod <- randomForest(pa ~., data=v) ## note the additional argument "type='response'" that is ## passed to predict.randomForest r3 <- predict(logo, rfmod, type='response', progress='window') ## get a RasterBrick with class membership probabilities vv <- v vv$pa <- as.factor(vv$pa) rfmod2 <- randomForest(pa ~., data=vv) r4 <- predict(logo, rfmod2, type='prob', index=1:2) spplot(r4) # cforest (other Random Forest implementation) example with factors argument v$red <- as.factor(round(v$red/100)) logo$red <- round(logo[[1]]/100) library(party) m <- cforest(pa~., control=cforest_unbiased(mtry=3), data=v) f <- list(levels(v$red)) names(f) <- 'red' # the second argument in party:::predict.RandomForest # is "OOB", and not "newdata" or similar. We need to write a wrapper # predict function to deal with this predfun <- function(m, d, ...) predict(m, newdata=d, ...) pc <- predict(logo, m, OOB=TRUE, factors=f, fun=predfun) # knn example, using calc instead of predict library(class) cl <- factor(c(rep(1, nrow(p)), rep(0, nrow(a)))) train <- extract(logo, rbind(p, a)) k <- calc(logo, function(x) as.integer(as.character(knn(train, x, cl)))) # }

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