```
r <- raster(ncol=36, nrow=18, vals=1:(18*36))
###############################
# extract values by cell number
###############################
extract(r, c(1:2, 10, 100))
s <- stack(r, sqrt(r), r/r)
extract(s, c(1, 10, 100), layer=2, n=2)
###############################
# extract values with points
###############################
xy <- cbind(-50, seq(-80, 80, by=20))
extract(r, xy)
sp <- SpatialPoints(xy)
extract(r, sp, method='bilinear')
# examples with a buffer
extract(r, xy[1:3,], buffer=1000000)
extract(r, xy[1:3,], buffer=1000000, fun=mean)
## illustrating the varying size of a buffer (expressed in meters)
## on a longitude/latitude raster
z <- extract(r, xy, buffer=1000000)
s <- raster(r)
for (i in 1:length(z)) { s[z[[i]]] <- i }
## compare with raster that is not longitude/latitude
crs(r) <- "+proj=utm +zone=17"
xy[,1] <- 50
z <- extract(r, xy, buffer=8)
for (i in 1:length(z)) { s[z[[i]]] <- i }
plot(s)
# library(maptools)
# data(wrld_simpl)
# plot(wrld_simpl, add=TRUE)
###############################
# extract values with lines
###############################
r <- raster(ncol=36, nrow=18, vals=1:(18*36))
cds1 <- rbind(c(-50,0), c(0,60), c(40,5), c(15,-45), c(-10,-25))
cds2 <- rbind(c(80,20), c(140,60), c(160,0), c(140,-55))
lines <- spLines(cds1, cds2)
extract(r, lines)
###############################
# extract values with polygons
###############################
cds1 <- rbind(c(-180,-20), c(-160,5), c(-60, 0), c(-160,-60), c(-180,-20))
cds2 <- rbind(c(80,0), c(100,60), c(120,0), c(120,-55), c(80,0))
polys <- spPolygons(cds1, cds2)
v <- extract(r, polys)
# mean for each polygon
unlist(lapply(v, function(x) if (!is.null(x)) mean(x, na.rm=TRUE) else NA ))
# v <- extract(r, polys, cellnumbers=TRUE)
# weighted mean
# v <- extract(r, polys, weights=TRUE, fun=mean)
# equivalent to:
# v <- extract(r, polys, weights=TRUE)
# sapply(v, function(x) if (!is.null(x)) {sum(apply(x, 1, prod)) / sum(x[,2])} else NA)
###############################
# extract values with an extent
###############################
e <- extent(150,170,-60,-40)
extract(r, e)
#plot(r)
#plot(e, add=T)
```

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