Render R Markdown

Render the input file to the specified output format using pandoc. If the input requires knitting then knit is called prior to pandoc.

render(input, output_format = NULL, output_file = NULL, output_dir = NULL,
       output_options = NULL, intermediates_dir = NULL,
       knit_root_dir = NULL,
       runtime = c("auto", "static", "shiny", "shiny_prerendered"),
       clean = TRUE, params = NULL, knit_meta = NULL, envir = parent.frame(),
       run_pandoc = TRUE, quiet = FALSE, encoding = getOption("encoding"))

Input file (R script, Rmd, or plain markdown).


R Markdown output format to convert to. Pass "all" to render all formats defined within the file. Pass the name of a format (e.g. "html_document") to render a single format or pass a vector of format names to render multiple formats. Alternatively you can pass an output format object; e.g. html_document(). If NULL is passed then the output format is the first one defined in the YAML metadata of the input file (defaulting to HTML if none is specified).


List of output options that can override the options specified in metadata (e.g. could be used to force self_contained or mathjax = "local"). Note that this is only valid when the output format is read from metadata (i.e. not a custom format object passed to output_format).


Output file. If NULL then a default based on the name of the input file is chosen.


Output directory. An alternate directory to write the output file to (defaults to the directory of the input file).


Intermediate files directory. If NULL, intermediate files are written to the same directory as the input file; otherwise.


The working directory in which to knit the document; uses knitr's root.dir knit option. NULL means to follow the knitr default, which is to use the parent directory of the document.


The runtime target for rendering. static produces output intended for static files; shiny produces output suitable for use in a Shiny document (see run). The default, auto, allows the runtime target specified in the YAML metadata to take precedence, and renders for a static runtime target otherwise.


TRUE to clean intermediate files created during rendering.


List of named parameters that override custom params specified within the YAML front-matter (e.g. specifying a dataset to read or a date range to confine output to). Pass "ask" to start an application that helps guide parameter configuration.


(For expert use) Meta data generated by knitr.


The environment in which the code chunks are to be evaluated during knitting (can use new.env() to guarantee an empty new environment).


Whether to run Pandoc to convert Markdown output.


TRUE to supress printing of the pandoc command line.


The encoding of the input file; see file.


Note that the knitr error option is set to FALSE during rendering (which is different from the knitr default value of TRUE).

For additional details on rendering R scripts see Compiling R scripts to a notebook.

If no output_format parameter is specified then the output format is read from the YAML front-matter of the input file. For example, the following YAML would yield a PDF document:

output: pdf_document

Additional format options can also be specified in metadata. For example:

    toc: true
    highlight: zenburn

Multiple formats can be specified in metadata. If no output_format is passed to render then the first one defined will be used:

    toc: true
    highlight: zenburn
    toc: true
    theme: united

Formats specified in metadata can be any one of the built in formats (e.g. html_document, pdf_document) or a format defined in another package (e.g. pkg::custom_format).

If there is no format defined in the YAML then html_document will be used.


When run_pandoc = TRUE, the compiled document is written into the output file, and the path of the output file is returned.

When run_pandoc = FALSE, the path of the Markdown output file, with attributes knit_meta (the knitr meta data collected from code chunks) and intermediates (the intermediate files/directories generated by render()).

R Markdown

R Markdown supports all of the base pandoc markdown features as well as some optional features for compatibility with GitHub Flavored Markdown (which previous versions of R Markdown were based on). See rmarkdown_format for details.

See Also

knit, output_format, pandoc

  • render


# render the default (first) format defined in the file

# render all formats defined in the file
render("input.Rmd", "all")

# render a single format
render("input.Rmd", "html_document")

# render multiple formats
render("input.Rmd", c("html_document", "pdf_document"))

Documentation reproduced from package rmarkdown, version 1.6, License: GPL-3

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