rmarkdown (version 2.3)

html_document: Convert to an HTML document


Format for converting from R Markdown to an HTML document.


  toc = FALSE,
  toc_depth = 3,
  toc_float = FALSE,
  number_sections = FALSE,
  section_divs = TRUE,
  fig_width = 7,
  fig_height = 5,
  fig_retina = 2,
  fig_caption = TRUE,
  dev = "png",
  df_print = "default",
  code_folding = c("none", "show", "hide"),
  code_download = FALSE,
  self_contained = TRUE,
  theme = "default",
  highlight = "default",
  mathjax = "default",
  template = "default",
  extra_dependencies = NULL,
  css = NULL,
  includes = NULL,
  keep_md = FALSE,
  lib_dir = NULL,
  md_extensions = NULL,
  pandoc_args = NULL,



TRUE to include a table of contents in the output


Depth of headers to include in table of contents


TRUE to float the table of contents to the left of the main document content. Rather than TRUE you may also pass a list of options that control the behavior of the floating table of contents. See the Floating Table of Contents section below for details.


TRUE to number section headings


Wrap sections in <div> tags, and attach identifiers to the enclosing <div> rather than the header itself.


Default width (in inches) for figures


Default height (in inches) for figures


Scaling to perform for retina displays (defaults to 2, which currently works for all widely used retina displays). Set to NULL to prevent retina scaling. Note that this will always be NULL when keep_md is specified (this is because fig_retina relies on outputting HTML directly into the markdown document).


TRUE to render figures with captions


Graphics device to use for figure output (defaults to png)


Method to be used for printing data frames. Valid values include "default", "kable", "tibble", and "paged". The "default" method uses a corresponding S3 method of print, typically print.data.frame. The "kable" method uses the knitr::kable function. The "tibble" method uses the tibble package to print a summary of the data frame. The "paged" method creates a paginated HTML table (note that this method is only valid for formats that produce HTML). In addition to the named methods you can also pass an arbitrary function to be used for printing data frames. You can disable the df_print behavior entirely by setting the option rmarkdown.df_print to FALSE.


Enable document readers to toggle the display of R code chunks. Specify "none" to display all code chunks (assuming they were knit with echo = TRUE). Specify "hide" to hide all R code chunks by default (users can show hidden code chunks either individually or document-wide). Specify "show" to show all R code chunks by default.


Embed the Rmd source code within the document and provide a link that can be used by readers to download the code.


Produce a standalone HTML file with no external dependencies, using data: URIs to incorporate the contents of linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. Note that even for self contained documents MathJax is still loaded externally (this is necessary because of its size).


Visual theme ("default", "cerulean", "journal", "flatly", "darkly", "readable", "spacelab", "united", "cosmo", "lumen", "paper", "sandstone", "simplex", or "yeti"). Pass NULL for no theme (in this case you can use the css parameter to add your own styles).


Syntax highlighting style. Supported styles include "default", "tango", "pygments", "kate", "monochrome", "espresso", "zenburn", "haddock", and "textmate". Pass NULL to prevent syntax highlighting.


Include mathjax. The "default" option uses an https URL from a MathJax CDN. The "local" option uses a local version of MathJax (which is copied into the output directory). You can pass an alternate URL or pass NULL to exclude MathJax entirely.


Pandoc template to use for rendering. Pass "default" to use the rmarkdown package default template; pass NULL to use pandoc's built-in template; pass a path to use a custom template that you've created. Note that if you don't use the "default" template then some features of html_document won't be available (see the Templates section below for more details).

extra_dependencies, ...

Additional function arguments to pass to the base R Markdown HTML output formatter html_document_base


One or more css files to include


Named list of additional content to include within the document (typically created using the includes function).


Keep the markdown file generated by knitting.


Directory to copy dependent HTML libraries (e.g. jquery, bootstrap, etc.) into. By default this will be the name of the document with _files appended to it.


Markdown extensions to be added or removed from the default definition or R Markdown. See the rmarkdown_format for additional details.


Additional command line options to pass to pandoc


R Markdown output format to pass to render

Navigation Bars

If you have a set of html documents which you'd like to provide a common global navigation bar for, you can include a "_navbar.yml" or "_navbar.html" file within the same directory as your html document and it will automatically be included at the top of the document.

The "_navbar.yml" file includes title, type, left, and right fields (to define menu items for the left and right of the navbar respectively). Menu items include title and href fields. For example:

title: "My Website"
type: default
  - text: "Home"
    href: index.html
  - text: "Other"
    href: other.html
  - text: GitHub
    href: https://github.com

The type field is optional and can take the value "default" or "inverse" (which provides a different color scheme for the navigation bar).

Alternatively, you can include a "_navbar.html" file which is a full HTML definition of a bootstrap navigation bar. For a simple example of including a navigation bar see https://github.com/rstudio/rmarkdown-website/blob/master/_navbar.html. For additional documentation on creating Bootstrap navigation bars see http://getbootstrap.com/components/#navbar.

Floating Table of Contents

You may specify a list of options for the toc_float parameter which control the behavior of the floating table of contents. Options include:

  • collapsed (defaults to TRUE) controls whether the table of contents appears with only the top-level (H2) headers. When collapsed the table of contents is automatically expanded inline when necessary.

  • smooth_scroll (defaults to TRUE) controls whether page scrolls are animated when table of contents items are navigated to via mouse clicks.

  • print (defaults to TRUE) controls whether the table of contents appears when user prints out the HTML page.

Tabbed Sections

You can organize content using tabs by applying the .tabset class attribute to headers within a document. This will cause all sub-headers of the header with the .tabset attribute to appear within tabs rather than as standalone sections. For example:

## Quarterly Results {.tabset}

### By Product

### By Region

You can also specify two additional attributes to control the appearance and behavior of the tabs. The .tabset-fade attributes causes the tabs to fade in and out when switching. The .tabset-pills attribute causes the visual appearance of the tabs to be "pill" rather than traditional tabs. For example:

## Quarterly Results {.tabset .tabset-fade .tabset-pills}


You can provide a custom HTML template to be used for rendering. The syntax for templates is described in the pandoc documentation. You can also use the basic pandoc template by passing template = NULL.

Note however that if you choose not to use the "default" HTML template then several aspects of HTML document rendering will behave differently:

  • The theme parameter does not work (you can still provide styles using the css parameter).

  • For the highlight parameter, the default highlighting style will resolve to "pygments" and the "textmate" highlighting style is not available

  • The toc_float parameter will not work.

  • The code_folding parameter will not work.

  • Tabbed sections (as described above) will not work.

  • Navigation bars (as described above) will not work.

  • MathJax will not work if self_contained is TRUE (these two options can't be used together in normal pandoc templates).

Due to the above restrictions, you might consider using the includes parameter as an alternative to providing a fully custom template.


See the online documentation for additional details on using the html_document format.

R Markdown documents can have optional metadata that is used to generate a document header that includes the title, author, and date. For more details see the documentation on R Markdown metadata.

R Markdown documents also support citations. You can find more information on the markdown syntax for citations in the Bibliographies and Citations article in the online documentation.


Run this code

render("input.Rmd", html_document())

render("input.Rmd", html_document(toc = TRUE))
# }

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