rms (version 5.1-3.1)

val.prob: Validate Predicted Probabilities


The val.prob function is useful for validating predicted probabilities against binary events.

Given a set of predicted probabilities p or predicted log odds logit, and a vector of binary outcomes y that were not used in developing the predictions p or logit, val.prob computes the following indexes and statistics: Somers' \(D_{xy}\) rank correlation between p and y [\(2(C-.5)\), \(C\)=ROC area], Nagelkerke-Cox-Snell-Maddala-Magee R-squared index, Discrimination index D [ (Logistic model L.R. \(\chi^2\) - 1)/n], L.R. \(\chi^2\), its \(P\)-value, Unreliability index \(U\), \(\chi^2\) with 2 d.f. for testing unreliability (H0: intercept=0, slope=1), its \(P\)-value, the quality index \(Q\), Brier score (average squared difference in p and y), Intercept, and Slope, \(E_{max}\)=maximum absolute difference in predicted and loess-calibrated probabilities, Eavg, the average in same, E90, the 0.9 quantile of same, the Spiegelhalter \(Z\)-test for calibration accuracy, and its two-tailed \(P\)-value. If pl=TRUE, plots fitted logistic calibration curve and optionally a smooth nonparametric fit using lowess(p,y,iter=0) and grouped proportions vs. mean predicted probability in group. If the predicted probabilities or logits are constant, the statistics are returned and no plot is made. Eavg, Emax, E90 were from linear logistic calibration before rms 4.5-1.

When group is present, different statistics are computed, different graphs are made, and the object returned by val.prob is different. group specifies a stratification variable. Validations are done separately by levels of group and overall. A print method prints summary statistics and several quantiles of predicted probabilities, and a plot method plots calibration curves with summary statistics superimposed, along with selected quantiles of the predicted probabilities (shown as tick marks on calibration curves). Only the lowess calibration curve is estimated. The statistics computed are the average predicted probability, the observed proportion of events, a 1 d.f. chi-square statistic for testing for overall mis-calibration (i.e., a test of the observed vs. the overall average predicted probability of the event) (ChiSq), and a 2 d.f. chi-square statistic for testing simultaneously that the intercept of a linear logistic calibration curve is zero and the slope is one (ChiSq2), average absolute calibration error (average absolute difference between the lowess-estimated calibration curve and the line of identity, labeled Eavg), Eavg divided by the difference between the 0.95 and 0.05 quantiles of predictive probabilities (Eavg/P90), a "median odds ratio", i.e., the anti-log of the median absolute difference between predicted and calibrated predicted log odds of the event (Med OR), the C-index (ROC area), the Brier quadratic error score (B), a chi-square test of goodness of fit based on the Brier score (B ChiSq), and the Brier score computed on calibrated rather than raw predicted probabilities (B cal). The first chi-square test is a test of overall calibration accuracy ("calibration in the large"), and the second will also detect errors such as slope shrinkage caused by overfitting or regression to the mean. See Cox (1970) for both of these score tests. The goodness of fit test based on the (uncalibrated) Brier score is due to Hilden, Habbema, and Bjerregaard (1978) and is discussed in Spiegelhalter (1986). When group is present you can also specify sampling weights (usually frequencies), to obtained weighted calibration curves.

To get the behavior that results from a grouping variable being present without having a grouping variable, use group=TRUE. In the plot method, calibration curves are drawn and labeled by default where they are maximally separated using the labcurve function. The following parameters do not apply when group is present: pl, smooth, logistic.cal, m, g, cuts, emax.lim, legendloc, riskdist, mkh, connect.group, connect.smooth. The following parameters apply to the plot method but not to val.prob: xlab, ylab, lim, statloc, cex.


val.prob(p, y, logit, group, weights=rep(1,length(y)), normwt=FALSE, 
         pl=TRUE, smooth=TRUE, logistic.cal=TRUE,
         xlab="Predicted Probability", ylab="Actual Probability",
         lim=c(0, 1), m, g, cuts, emax.lim=c(0,1),
         legendloc=lim[1] + c(0.55 * diff(lim), 0.27 * diff(lim)), 
         statloc=c(0,0.99), riskdist=c("predicted", "calibrated"),
         cex=.7, mkh=.02,
         connect.group=FALSE, connect.smooth=TRUE, g.group=4, 
         evaluate=100, nmin=0)

# S3 method for val.prob print(x, …)

# S3 method for val.prob plot(x, xlab="Predicted Probability", ylab="Actual Probability", lim=c(0,1), statloc=lim, stats=1:12, cex=.5, lwd.overall=4, quantiles=c(.05,.95), flag, …)



predicted probability


vector of binary outcomes


predicted log odds of outcome. Specify either p or logit.


a grouping variable. If numeric this variable is grouped into g.group quantile groups (default is quartiles). Set group=TRUE to use the group algorithm but with a single stratum for val.prob.


an optional numeric vector of per-observation weights (usually frequencies), used only if group is given.


set to TRUE to make weights sum to the number of non-missing observations.


TRUE to plot calibration curves and optionally statistics


plot smooth fit to (p,y) using lowess(p,y,iter=0)


plot linear logistic calibration fit to (p,y)


x-axis label, default is "Predicted Probability" for val.prob.


y-axis label, default is "Actual Probability" for val.prob.


limits for both x and y axes


If grouped proportions are desired, average no. observations per group


If grouped proportions are desired, number of quantile groups


If grouped proportions are desired, actual cut points for constructing intervals, e.g. c(0,.1,.8,.9,1) or seq(0,1,by=.2)


Vector containing lowest and highest predicted probability over which to compute Emax.


If pl=TRUE, list with components x,y or vector c(x,y) for upper left corner of legend for curves and points. Default is c(.55, .27) scaled to lim. Use locator(1) to use the mouse, FALSE to suppress legend.


\(D_{xy}\), \(C\), \(R^2\), \(D\), \(U\), \(Q\), Brier score, Intercept, Slope, and \(E_{max}\) will be added to plot, using statloc as the upper left corner of a box (default is c(0,.9)). You can specify a list or a vector. Use locator(1) for the mouse, FALSE to suppress statistics. This is plotted after the curve legends.


Use "calibrated" to plot the relative frequency distribution of calibrated probabilities after dividing into 101 bins from lim[1] to lim[2]. Set to "predicted" (the default as of rms 4.5-1) to use raw assigned risk, FALSE to omit risk distribution. Values are scaled so that highest bar is 0.15*(lim[2]-lim[1]).


Character size for legend or for table of statistics when group is given


Size of symbols for legend. Default is 0.02 (see par()).


Defaults to FALSE to only represent group fractions as triangles. Set to TRUE to also connect with a solid line.


Defaults to TRUE to draw smoothed estimates using a dashed line. Set to FALSE to instead use dots at individual estimates.


number of quantile groups to use when group is given and variable is numeric.


number of points at which to store the lowess-calibration curve. Default is 100. If there are more than evaluate unique predicted probabilities, evaluate equally-spaced quantiles of the unique predicted probabilities, with linearly interpolated calibrated values, are retained for plotting (and stored in the object returned by val.prob.


applies when group is given. When nmin \(> 0\), val.prob will not store coordinates of smoothed calibration curves in the outer tails, where there are fewer than nmin raw observations represented in those tails. If for example nmin=50, the plot function will only plot the estimated calibration curve from \(a\) to \(b\), where there are 50 subjects with predicted probabilities \(< a\) and \(> b\). nmin is ignored when computing accuracy statistics.


result of val.prob (with group in effect)

optional arguments for labcurve (through plot). Commonly used options are col (vector of colors for the strata plus overall) and lty. Ignored for print.


vector of column numbers of statistical indexes to write on plot


line width for plotting the overall calibration curve


a vector listing which quantiles should be indicated on each calibration curve using tick marks. The values in quantiles can be any number of values from the following: .01, .025, .05, .1, .25, .5, .75, .9, .95, .975, .99. By default the 0.05 and 0.95 quantiles are indicated.


a function of the matrix of statistics (rows representing groups) returning a vector of character strings (one value for each group, including "Overall"). plot.val.prob will print this vector of character values to the left of the statistics. The flag function can refer to columns of the matrix used as input to the function by their names given in the description above. The default function returns "*" if either ChiSq2 or B ChiSq is significant at the 0.01 level and " " otherwise.


val.prob without group returns a vector with the following named elements: Dxy, R2, D, D:Chi-sq, D:p, U, U:Chi-sq, U:p, Q, Brier, Intercept, Slope, S:z, S:p, Emax. When group is present val.prob returns an object of class val.prob containing a list with summary statistics and calibration curves for all the strata plus "Overall".


The 2 d.f. \(\chi^2\) test and Med OR exclude predicted or calibrated predicted probabilities \(\leq 0\) to zero or \(\geq 1\), adjusting the sample size as needed.


Harrell FE, Lee KL, Mark DB (1996): Multivariable prognostic models: Issues in developing models, evaluating assumptions and adequacy, and measuring and reducing errors. Stat in Med 15:361--387.

Harrell FE, Lee KL (1987): Using logistic calibration to assess the accuracy of probability predictions (Technical Report).

Miller ME, Hui SL, Tierney WM (1991): Validation techniques for logistic regression models. Stat in Med 10:1213--1226.

Stallard N (2009): Simple tests for the external validation of mortality prediction scores. Stat in Med 28:377--388.

Harrell FE, Lee KL (1985): A comparison of the discrimination of discriminant analysis and logistic regression under multivariate normality. In Biostatistics: Statistics in Biomedical, Public Health, and Environmental Sciences. The Bernard G. Greenberg Volume, ed. PK Sen. New York: North-Holland, p. 333--343.

Cox DR (1970): The Analysis of Binary Data, 1st edition, section 4.4. London: Methuen.

Spiegelhalter DJ (1986):Probabilistic prediction in patient management. Stat in Med 5:421--433.

Rufibach K (2010):Use of Brier score to assess binary predictions. J Clin Epi 63:938-939

Tjur T (2009):Coefficients of determination in logistic regression models-A new proposal:The coefficient of discrimination. Am Statist 63:366--372.

See Also

validate.lrm, lrm.fit, lrm, labcurve, wtd.stats, scat1d


# Fit logistic model on 100 observations simulated from the actual 
# model given by Prob(Y=1 given X1, X2, X3) = 1/(1+exp[-(-1 + 2X1)]),
# where X1 is a random uniform [0,1] variable.  Hence X2 and X3 are 
# irrelevant.  After fitting a linear additive model in X1, X2,
# and X3, the coefficients are used to predict Prob(Y=1) on a
# separate sample of 100 observations.  Note that data splitting is
# an inefficient validation method unless n > 20,000.

n <- 200
x1 <- runif(n)
x2 <- runif(n)
x3 <- runif(n)
logit <- 2*(x1-.5)
P <- 1/(1+exp(-logit))
y <- ifelse(runif(n)<=P, 1, 0)
d <- data.frame(x1,x2,x3,y)
f <- lrm(y ~ x1 + x2 + x3, subset=1:100)
pred.logit <- predict(f, d[101:200,])
phat <- 1/(1+exp(-pred.logit))
val.prob(phat, y[101:200], m=20, cex=.5)  # subgroups of 20 obs.

# Validate predictions more stringently by stratifying on whether
# x1 is above or below the median

v <- val.prob(phat, y[101:200], group=x1[101:200], g.group=2)
plot(v, flag=function(stats) ifelse(
  stats[,'ChiSq2'] > qchisq(.95,2) |
  stats[,'B ChiSq'] > qchisq(.95,1), '*', ' ') )
# Stars rows of statistics in plot corresponding to significant
# mis-calibration at the 0.05 level instead of the default, 0.01

plot(val.prob(phat, y[101:200], group=x1[101:200], g.group=2), 
              col=1:3) # 3 colors (1 for overall)

# Weighted calibration curves
# plot(val.prob(pred, y, group=age, weights=freqs))
# }