smerc (version 1.4.2)

scan.test: Spatial Scan Test

Description

scan.test performs the original spatial scan test of Kulldorf (1997) based on a fixed number of cases. Candidate zones are circular and extend from the observed region centroids. The clusters returned are non-overlapping, ordered from most significant to least significant. The first cluster is the most likely to be a cluster. If no significant clusters are found, then the most likely cluster is returned (along with a warning).

Usage

scan.test(
  coords,
  cases,
  pop,
  ex = sum(cases)/sum(pop) * pop,
  nsim = 499,
  alpha = 0.1,
  ubpop = 0.5,
  longlat = FALSE,
  cl = NULL,
  type = "poisson",
  min.cases = 2,
  simdist = "multinomial"
)

Arguments

coords

An \(n \times 2\) matrix of centroid coordinates for the regions.

cases

The number of cases observed in each region.

pop

The population size associated with each region.

ex

The expected number of cases for each region. The default is calculated under the constant risk hypothesis.

nsim

The number of simulations from which to compute the p-value.

alpha

The significance level to determine whether a cluster is signficant. Default is 0.10.

ubpop

The upperbound of the proportion of the total population to consider for a cluster.

longlat

The default is FALSE, which specifies that Euclidean distance should be used. If longlat is TRUE, then the great circle distance is used to calculate the intercentroid distance.

cl

A cluster object created by makeCluster, or an integer to indicate number of child-processes (integer values are ignored on Windows) for parallel evaluations (see Details on performance).

type

The type of scan statistic to compute. The default is "poisson". The other choice is "binomial".

min.cases

The minimum number of cases required for a cluster. The default is 2.

simdist

Character string indicating the simulation distribution. The default is "multinomial", which conditions on the total number of cases observed. The other options are "poisson" and "binomial"

Value

Returns a smerc_cluster object.

References

Kulldorff, M. (1997) A spatial scan statistic. Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, 26(6): 1481-1496, <doi:10.1080/03610929708831995>

Waller, L.A. and Gotway, C.A. (2005). Applied Spatial Statistics for Public Health Data. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

See Also

print.smerc_cluster, summary.smerc_cluster, plot.smerc_cluster, scan.stat

Examples

# NOT RUN {
data(nydf)
coords = with(nydf, cbind(longitude, latitude))
out = scan.test(coords = coords, cases = floor(nydf$cases),
                pop = nydf$pop, nsim = 0,
                alpha = 1, longlat = TRUE)
## plot output for new york state
# specify desired argument values
mapargs = list(database = "county", region = "new york",
xlim = range(out$coords[,1]), ylim = range(out$coords[,2]))
# needed for "state" database (unless you execute library(maps))
data(countyMapEnv, package = "maps")
plot(out, usemap = TRUE, mapargs = mapargs)

# a second example to match the results of Waller and Gotway (2005)
# in chapter 7 of their book (pp. 220-221).
# Note that the 'longitude' and 'latitude' used by them has
# been switched.  When giving their input to SatScan, the coords
# were given in the order 'longitude' and 'latitude'.
# However, the SatScan program takes coordinates in the order
# 'latitude' and 'longitude', so the results are slightly different
# from the example above.
coords = with(nydf, cbind(y, x))
out2 = scan.test(coords = coords, cases = floor(nydf$cases),
                  pop = nydf$pop, nsim = 0,
                  alpha = 1, longlat = TRUE)
# the cases observed for the clusters in Waller and Gotway: 117, 47, 44
# the second set of results match
sget(out2$clusters, name = "cases")[1:3]
# }