spsample

0th

Percentile

sample point locations in (or on) a spatial object

sample point locations within a square area, a grid, a polygon, or on a spatial line, using regular or random sampling methods; the methods used assume that the geometry used is not spherical, so objects should be in planar coordinates

Keywords
manip, methods
Usage
spsample(x, n, type, ...)
sample.Spatial(x, n, type, bb = bbox(x), offset = runif(nrow(bb)), cellsize, ..., nclusters = 1)
sample.Line(x, n, type, offset = runif(1), proj4string=CRS(as.character(NA)), ...)
sample.Polygon(x, n, type = "random", bb = bbox(x), offset = runif(2), proj4string=CRS(as.character(NA)), iter = 4, ...)
sample.Polygons(x, n, type = "random", bb = bbox(x), offset = runif(2), proj4string=CRS(as.character(NA)), iter = 4, ...)
sample.Sgrid(x, n, type = "random", bb = bbox(x), offset = runif(nrow(bb)), ...)
makegrid(x, n = 10000, nsig = 2, cellsize, offset = rep(0.5, nrow(bb)))
Arguments
x
Spatial object; spsample(x,...) is a generic method for the existing sample.Xxx fumctions
...
optional arguments, passed to the appropriate sample.Xxx functions
n
(approximate) sample size
type
character; "random" for completely spatial random; "regular" for regular (systematically aligned) sampling; "stratified" for stratified random (one single random location in each "cell"); "nonaligned" fo
bb
bounding box of the sampled domain; setting this to a smaller value leads to sub-region sampling
offset
for regular sampling only: the offset (position) of the regular grid; the default for spsample methods is a random location in the unit cell [0,1] x [0,1], leading to a different grid after each call; if this is set to c(0.5,0.5)
cellsize
if missing, a cell size is derived from the sample size n; otherwise, this cell size is used for all sampling methods except "random"
nclusters
Number of clusters (strata) to sample from
proj4string
Object of class "CRS"; holding a valid proj4 string
nsig
for "pretty" coordinates; spsample does not result in pretty grids
iter
default = 4: number of times to try to place sample points in a polygon before giving up and returning NULL - this may occur when trying to hit a small and awkwardly shaped polygon in a large bounding box with a small number of points
Value

  • an object of class SpatialPoints-class. The number of points is only guaranteed to equal n when sampling is done in a square box, i.e. (sample.Spatial). Otherwise, the obtained number of points will have expected value n.

    When x is of a class deriving from Spatial-class for which no spsample-methods exists, sampling is done in the bounding box of the object, using spsample.Spatial. An overlay may be necessary to select afterwards.

    Sampling type "nonaligned" is not implemented for line objects.

    Some methods may return NULL if no points could be successfully placed.

    makegrid makes a regular grid, deriving cell size from the number of grid points requested (approximating the number of cells).

Note

If an Polygon-class object has zero area (i.e. is a line), samples on this line element are returned. If the area is very close to zero, the algorithm taken here (generating points in a square area, selecting those inside the polygon) may be very resource intensive. When numbers of points per polygon are small and type="random", the number searched for is inflated to ensure hits, and the points returned sampled among these.

References

Chapter 3 in B.D. Ripley, 1981. Spatial Statistics, Wiley

Fibonacci sampling: Alvaro Gonzalez, 2010. Measurement of Areas on a Sphere Using Fibonacci and Latitude-Longitude Lattices. Mathematical Geosciences 42(1), p. 49-64

See Also

overlay-methods, point.in.polygon, sample

Aliases
  • spsample-methods
  • spsample,Spatial-method
  • spsample,Line-method
  • spsample,Lines-method
  • spsample,SpatialLines-method
  • spsample,Polygon-method
  • spsample,Polygons-method
  • spsample,SpatialGrid-method
  • spsample,SpatialPixels-method
  • spsample,SpatialPolygons-method
  • spsample
  • makegrid
  • sample.Spatial
  • sample.Line
  • sample.Polygon
  • sample.Polygons
  • sample.Sgrid
Examples
data(meuse.riv)
meuse.sr = SpatialPolygons(list(Polygons(list(Polygon(meuse.riv)), "x")))

plot(meuse.sr)
points(spsample(meuse.sr, n = 1000, "regular"), pch = 3)

plot(meuse.sr)
points(spsample(meuse.sr, n = 1000, "random"), pch = 3)

plot(meuse.sr)
points(spsample(meuse.sr, n = 1000, "stratified"), pch = 3)

plot(meuse.sr)
points(spsample(meuse.sr, n = 1000, "nonaligned"), pch = 3)

plot(meuse.sr)
points(spsample(meuse.sr@polygons[[1]], n = 100, "stratified"), pch = 3, cex=.5)

data(meuse.grid)
gridded(meuse.grid) = ~x+y
image(meuse.grid)
points(spsample(meuse.grid,n=1000,type="random"), pch=3, cex=.5)
image(meuse.grid)
points(spsample(meuse.grid,n=1000,type="stratified"), pch=3, cex=.5)
image(meuse.grid)
points(spsample(meuse.grid,n=1000,type="regular"), pch=3, cex=.5)
image(meuse.grid)
points(spsample(meuse.grid,n=1000,type="nonaligned"), pch=3, cex=.5)

fullgrid(meuse.grid) = TRUE
image(meuse.grid)
points(spsample(meuse.grid,n=1000,type="stratified"), pch=3,cex=.5)
Documentation reproduced from package sp, version 0.9-98, License: GPL (>= 2)

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