Create a Pixel Image Object

Creates an object of class "im" representing a two-dimensional pixel image.

manip, spatial, datagen
im(mat, xcol=seq(ncol(mat)), yrow=seq(nrow(mat)), lev=levels(mat),
matrix or vector containing the pixel values of the image.
vector of $x$ coordinates for the pixel gid
vector of $y$ coordinates for the pixel grid
possible factor levels, if mat should be interpreted as a factor.
Optional. Name of unit of length. Either a single character string, or a vector of two character strings giving the singular and plural forms, respectively.

This function creates an object of class "im" representing a two-dimensional pixel image. See im.object for details of this class.

The matrix mat contains the greyscale values for a rectangular grid of pixels. Note carefully that the entry mat[i,j] gives the pixel value at the location (xcol[j],yrow[i]). That is, the row index of the matrix mat corresponds to increasing y coordinate, while the column index of mat corresponds to increasing x coordinate. Thus yrow has one entry for each row of mat and xcol has one entry for each column of mat. Under the usual convention in R, a correct display of the image would be obtained by transposing the matrix, e.g. image.default(xcol, yrow, t(mat)), if you wanted to do it by hand.

The entries of mat may be numeric (real or integer), complex, logical, character, or factor values. If mat is not a matrix, it will be converted into a matrix with nrow(mat) = length(yrow) and ncol(mat) = length(xcol).

Rdoes not allow a matrix to have factor-valued entries. So to make a factor-valued image from raw data, you must supply mat as a factor vector and specify the arguments xcol and yrow to determine the dimensions of the image. See the examples. (Alternatively you can use the functions or to make factor-valued images from other images).

For a description of the methods available for pixel image objects, see im.object.

To convert other kinds of data to a pixel image (for example, functions or windows), use


The internal representation of images is likely to change in future releases of spatstat. The safe way to extract pixel values from an image object is to use or [.im.

See Also

im.object,,, [.im,

  • im
vec <- rnorm(1200)
   mat <- matrix(vec, nrow=30, ncol=40)
   whitenoise <- im(mat)
   whitenoise <- im(mat, xcol=seq(0,1,length=40), yrow=seq(0,1,length=30))
   whitenoise <- im(vec, xcol=seq(0,1,length=40), yrow=seq(0,1,length=30))

   cutvec <- cut(mat, 3)
   # although mat was a matrix, cutvec is a vector, with factor values
   cutwhite <- im(cutvec, xcol=seq(0,1,length=40), yrow=seq(0,1,length=30))
   # cutwhite is a factor-valued image
Documentation reproduced from package spatstat, version 1.18-1, License: GPL (>= 2)

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