Extract.im

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Extract Subset of Image

Extract a subset or subregion of a pixel image.

Keywords
manip, spatial
Usage
## S3 method for class 'im':
[(x, i, drop=TRUE, \dots, raster=NULL)
Arguments
x
A two-dimensional pixel image. An object of class "im".
i
Object defining the subregion or subset to be extracted. Either a spatial window (an object of class "owin"), or a pixel image with logical values, or a point pattern (an object of class "ppp"), or something that
...
Ignored.
drop
Logical value. Locations in w that lie outside the spatial domain of the image x return a pixel value of NA if drop=FALSE, and are omitted if drop=TRUE.
raster
Optional. An object of class "owin" or "im" determining a pixel grid.
Details

This function extracts a subset of the pixel values in a pixel image. (To reassign the pixel values, see [<-.im).

The image x must be an object of class "im" representing a pixel image defined inside a rectangle in two-dimensional space (see im.object).

The subset to be extracted is determined by the argument i. If i is a spatial window (an object of class "owin"), the values of the image inside this window are extracted (after first clipping the window to the spatial domain of the image if necessary). If i is a pixel image with logical values, it is interpreted as a spatial window (with TRUE values inside the window and FALSE outside). If i is a point pattern (an object of class "ppp"), then the values of the pixel image at the points of this pattern are extracted. At locations outside the spatial domain of the image, the pixel value is undefined, and is taken to be NA. The logical argument drop determines whether such NA values will be returned or omitted. It also influences the format of the return value.

If i is a point pattern (or something that can be converted to a point pattern by as.ppp such as a list of x,y coordinates), then X[i, drop=FALSE] is a numeric vector containing the pixel values at each of the points of the pattern. Its length is equal to the number of points in the pattern i. It may contain NAs corresponding to points which lie outside the spatial domain of the image x. By contrast, X[i] or X[i, drop=TRUE] contains only those pixel values which are not NA. It may be shorter.

If i is a spatial window then X[i, drop=FALSE] is another pixel image of the same dimensions as x obtained by setting all pixels outside the window i to have value NA. When the result is displayed by plot.im the effect is that the pixel image x is clipped to the window i.

If i is a spatial window which is not a rectangle (i$type != "rectangle") then X[i, drop=TRUE] is a numeric vector containing the pixel values for all pixels that lie inside the window i.

If i is a rectangle (a spatial window with i$type = "rectangle") then X[i, drop=TRUE] is a pixel image. The spatial domain of this image is the intersection of i with the spatial domain of x.

If the optional argument raster is given, then it should be a binary image mask or a pixel image. Then x will first be converted to an image defined on the pixel grid implied by raster, before the subset operation is carried out. In particular, x[i, raster=i, drop=FALSE] will return an image defined on the same pixel array as the object i.

Value

  • Either a pixel image or a vector of pixel values. See Details.

Warning

If W is a window or a pixel image, then x[W, drop=FALSE] will return an image defined on the same pixel array as the original image x. If you want to obtain an image whose pixel dimensions agree with those of W, use the raster argument, x[W, raster=W, drop=FALSE].

See Also

im.object, [<-.im, ppp.object, as.ppp, owin.object, plot.im

Aliases
  • [.im
Examples
# make up an image
 X <- setcov(unit.square())
 plot(X)

 # a rectangular subset
 W <- owin(c(0,0.5),c(0.2,0.8))
 Y <- X[W]
 plot(Y)

 # a polygonal subset
 data(letterR)
 R <- affine(letterR, diag(c(1,1)/2), c(-2,-0.7))
 Y <- X[R, drop=FALSE]
 plot(Y)

 # a point pattern
 P <- rpoispp(20)
 Y <- X[P]

 # look up a specified location
 X[list(x=0.1,y=0.2)]

 # 10 x 10 pixel array
 X <- as.im(function(x,y) { x + y }, owin(c(-1,1),c(-1,1)), dimyx=10)
 # 100 x 100 
 W <- as.mask(disc(1, c(0,0)), dimyx=100)
 # 10 x 10 raster
 X[W,drop=FALSE]
 # 100 x 100 raster
 X[W, raster=W, drop=FALSE]
Documentation reproduced from package spatstat, version 1.18-2, License: GPL (>= 2)

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