Convert Point Pattern to Pixel Image

Converts a point pattern to a pixel image. The value in each pixel is the number of points falling in that pixel, and is typically either 0 or 1.

manip, spatial
## S3 method for class 'ppp':
pixellate(x, W=NULL, \dots, weights = NULL, padzero=FALSE)

## S3 method for class 'ppp': as.im(X, \dots)

Point pattern (object of class "ppp").
Arguments passed to as.mask to determine the pixel resolution
Optional window mask (object of class "owin") determining the pixel raster.
Optional vector of weights associated with the points.
Logical flag indicating whether to set pixel values to zero outside the window.

The functions pixellate.ppp and as.im.ppp convert a spatial point pattern x into a pixel image, by counting the number of points (or the total weight of points) falling in each pixel.

Calling as.im.ppp is equivalent to calling pixellate.ppp with its default arguments. Note that pixellate.ppp is more general than as.im.ppp (it has additional arguments for greater flexibility).

The functions as.im.ppp and pixellate.ppp are methods for the generic functions as.im and pixellate respectively, for the class of point patterns.

The pixel raster (in which points are counted) is determined by the argument W if it is present (for pixellate.ppp only). In this case W should be a binary mask (a window object of class "owin" with type "mask"). Otherwise the pixel raster is determined by extracting the window containing x and converting it to a binary pixel mask using as.mask. The arguments ... are passed to as.mask to control the pixel resolution.

If weights is NULL, then for each pixel in the mask, the algorithm counts how many points in x fall in the pixel. This count is usually either 0 (for a pixel with no data points in it) or 1 (for a pixel containing one data point) but may be greater than 1. The result is an image with these counts as its pixel values.

If weights is given, it should be a numeric vector of the same length as the number of points in x. For each pixel, the algorithm finds the total weight associated with points in x that fall in the given pixel. The result is an image with these total weights as its pixel values.

By default (if zeropad=FALSE) the resulting pixel image has the same spatial domain as the window of the point pattern x. If zeropad=TRUE then the resulting pixel image has a rectangular domain; pixels outside the original window are assigned the value zero.


  • A pixel image (object of class "im").

See Also

pixellate, im, as.im, density.ppp, smooth.ppp.

  • pixellate.ppp
  • as.im.ppp
Documentation reproduced from package spatstat, version 1.23-2, License: GPL (>= 2)

Community examples

Looks like there are no examples yet.