# connected.ppp

##### Connected components of a point pattern

Finds the topologically-connected components of a point pattern, when all pairs of points closer than a threshold distance are joined.

##### Usage

```
## S3 method for class 'ppp':
connected(X, R, \dots)
```

##### Arguments

- X
- A point pattern (object of class
`"ppp"`

). - R
- Threshold distance. Pairs of points closer than
`R`

units apart will be joined together. - ...
- Other arguments, not recognised by these methods.

##### Details

This function can be used to identify clumps of points in a point pattern.

The function `connected`

is generic. This is the method for
point patterns (objects of class `"ppp"`

).

The point pattern `X`

is first converted into an abstract graph
by joining every pair of points that lie closer than `R`

units
apart. Then the connected components of this graph are identified.

Two points in `X`

belong to the same connected component if they
can be reached by a series of steps between points of `X`

,
each step being shorter than `R`

units in length.

The result is a vector of labels for the points of `X`

where all the points in a connected component have the same label.

##### Value

- A point pattern, equivalent to
`X`

except that the points have factor-valued marks, with levels corresponding to the connected components.

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
Y <- connected(redwood, 0.13)
if(interactive()) {
plot(Y, cols=1:length(levels(f)))
plot(split(Y))
}
```

*Documentation reproduced from package spatstat, version 1.31-2, License: GPL (>= 2)*