# pcfinhom

##### Inhomogeneous Pair Correlation Function

Estimates the inhomogeneous pair correlation function of a point pattern using kernel methods.

- Keywords
- spatial, nonparametric

##### Usage

```
pcfinhom(X, lambda = NULL, ..., r = NULL,
kernel = "epanechnikov", bw = NULL, stoyan = 0.15,
correction = c("translate", "Ripley"),
divisor = c("r", "d"),
renormalise = TRUE, normpower=1,
reciplambda = NULL,
sigma = NULL, varcov = NULL)
```

##### Arguments

- X
- A point pattern (object of class
`"ppp"`

). - lambda
- Optional.
Values of the estimated intensity function.
Either a vector giving the intensity values
at the points of the pattern
`X`

, a pixel image (object of class`"im"`

) giving the intensity values at all locatio - r
- Vector of values for the argument $r$ at which $g(r)$ should be evaluated. There is a sensible default.
- kernel
- Choice of smoothing kernel, passed to
`density.default`

. - bw
- Bandwidth for smoothing kernel, passed to
`density.default`

. - ...
- Other arguments passed to the kernel density estimation
function
`density.default`

. - stoyan
- Bandwidth coefficient; see
`pcf.ppp`

. - correction
- Choice of edge correction.
- divisor
- Choice of divisor in the estimation formula:
either
`"r"`

(the default) or`"d"`

. See`pcf.ppp`

. - renormalise
- Logical. Whether to renormalise the estimate. See Details.
- normpower
- Integer (usually either 1 or 2). Normalisation power. See Details.
- reciplambda
- Alternative to
`lambda`

. Values of the estimated*reciprocal*$1/\lambda$ of the intensity function. Either a vector giving the reciprocal intensity values at the points of the pattern`X`

, a pixel image (o - sigma,varcov
- Optional arguments passed to
`density.ppp`

to control the smoothing bandwidth, when`lambda`

is estimated by kernel smoothing.

##### Details

The inhomogeneous pair correlation function $g_{\rm inhom}(r)$ is a summary of the dependence between points in a spatial point process that does not have a uniform density of points.

The best intuitive interpretation is the following: the probability $p(r)$ of finding two points at locations $x$ and $y$ separated by a distance $r$ is equal to $$p(r) = \lambda(x) lambda(y) g(r) \,{\rm d}x \, {\rm d}y$$ where $\lambda$ is the intensity function of the point process. For a Poisson point process with intensity function $\lambda$, this probability is $p(r) = \lambda(x) \lambda(y)$ so $g_{\rm inhom}(r) = 1$.

The inhomogeneous pair correlation function
is related to the inhomogeneous $K$ function through
$$g_{\rm inhom}(r) = \frac{K'_{\rm inhom}(r)}{2\pi r}$$
where $K'_{\rm inhom}(r)$
is the derivative of $K_{\rm inhom}(r)$, the
inhomogeneous $K$ function. See `Kinhom`

for information
about $K_{\rm inhom}(r)$.

The command `pcfinhom`

estimates the inhomogeneous
pair correlation using a modified version of
the algorithm in `pcf.ppp`

.
If `renormalise=TRUE`

(the default), then the estimates
are multiplied by $c^{\mbox{normpower}}$ where
$c = \mbox{area}(W)/\sum (1/\lambda(x_i)).$
This rescaling reduces the variability and bias of the estimate
in small samples and in cases of very strong inhomogeneity.
The default value of `normpower`

is 1
but the most sensible value is 2, which would correspond to rescaling
the `lambda`

values so that
$\sum (1/\lambda(x_i)) = \mbox{area}(W).$

##### Value

- A function value table (object of class
`"fv"`

). Essentially a data frame containing the variables r the vector of values of the argument $r$ at which the inhomogeneous pair correlation function $g_{\rm inhom}(r)$ has been estimated theo vector of values equal to 1, the theoretical value of $g_{\rm inhom}(r)$ for the Poisson process trans vector of values of $g_{\rm inhom}(r)$ estimated by translation correction iso vector of values of $g_{\rm inhom}(r)$ estimated by Ripley isotropic correction - as required.

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
data(residualspaper)
X <- residualspaper$Fig4b
plot(pcfinhom(X, stoyan=0.2, sigma=0.1))
fit <- ppm(X, ~polynom(x,y,2))
plot(pcfinhom(X, lambda=fit, normpower=2))
```

*Documentation reproduced from package spatstat, version 1.42-2, License: GPL (>= 2)*