Determines which points in a spatial point pattern are duplicates of previous points, and returns a logical vector.

```
# S3 method for ppp
duplicated(x, …, rule=c("spatstat", "deldir", "unmark"))
``` # S3 method for ppx
duplicated(x, …)

# S3 method for ppp
anyDuplicated(x, …)

# S3 method for ppx
anyDuplicated(x, …)

x

A spatial point pattern
(object of class `"ppp"`

or `"ppx"`

).

…

Ignored.

rule

Character string. The rule for determining duplicated points.

`duplicated(x)`

returns
a logical vector of length equal to the number of points in `x`

.

`anyDuplicated(x)`

is a number equal to 0 if there are no
duplicated points, and otherwise is equal to the index of the first
duplicated point.

These are methods for the generic functions `duplicated`

and `anyDuplicated`

for
point pattern datasets (of class `"ppp"`

, see
`ppp.object`

, or class `"ppx"`

).

`anyDuplicated(x)`

is a faster version of
`any(duplicated(x))`

.

Two points in a point pattern are deemed to be identical if their \(x,y\) coordinates are the same, and their marks are also the same (if they carry marks). The Examples section illustrates how it is possible for a point pattern to contain a pair of identical points.

This function determines which points in `x`

duplicate
other points that appeared earlier in the sequence. It
returns a logical vector with entries that are `TRUE`

for duplicated points and `FALSE`

for unique (non-duplicated)
points.

If `rule="spatstat"`

(the default), two points are deemed
identical if their coordinates are equal according to `==`

,
*and* their marks are equal according to `==`

.
This is the most stringent possible test.
If `rule="unmark"`

, duplicated points are
determined by testing equality of their coordinates only,
using `==`

.
If `rule="deldir"`

, duplicated points are
determined by testing equality of their coordinates only,
using the function `duplicatedxy`

in the package deldir, which currently uses
`duplicated.data.frame`

. Setting `rule="deldir"`

will ensure consistency with functions in the deldir package.

```
# NOT RUN {
X <- ppp(c(1,1,0.5), c(2,2,1), window=square(3))
duplicated(X)
duplicated(X, rule="deldir")
# }
```

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