# duplicated.ppp

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##### Determine Duplicated Points in a Spatial Point Pattern

Determines which points in a spatial point pattern are duplicates of previous points, and returns a logical vector.

Keywords
methods, spatial
##### Usage
# S3 method for ppp
duplicated(x, …, rule=c("spatstat", "deldir", "unmark")) # S3 method for ppx
duplicated(x, …) # S3 method for ppp
anyDuplicated(x, …) # S3 method for ppx
anyDuplicated(x, …)
##### Arguments
x

A spatial point pattern (object of class "ppp" or "ppx").

Ignored.

rule

Character string. The rule for determining duplicated points.

##### Details

These are methods for the generic functions duplicated and anyDuplicated for point pattern datasets (of class "ppp", see ppp.object, or class "ppx").

anyDuplicated(x) is a faster version of any(duplicated(x)).

Two points in a point pattern are deemed to be identical if their $x,y$ coordinates are the same, and their marks are also the same (if they carry marks). The Examples section illustrates how it is possible for a point pattern to contain a pair of identical points.

This function determines which points in x duplicate other points that appeared earlier in the sequence. It returns a logical vector with entries that are TRUE for duplicated points and FALSE for unique (non-duplicated) points.

If rule="spatstat" (the default), two points are deemed identical if their coordinates are equal according to ==, and their marks are equal according to ==. This is the most stringent possible test. If rule="unmark", duplicated points are determined by testing equality of their coordinates only, using ==. If rule="deldir", duplicated points are determined by testing equality of their coordinates only, using the function duplicatedxy in the package deldir, which currently uses duplicated.data.frame. Setting rule="deldir" will ensure consistency with functions in the deldir package.

##### Value

duplicated(x) returns a logical vector of length equal to the number of points in x.

anyDuplicated(x) is a number equal to 0 if there are no duplicated points, and otherwise is equal to the index of the first duplicated point.

ppp.object, unique.ppp, multiplicity.ppp

##### Aliases
• duplicated.ppp
• duplicated.ppx
• anyDuplicated.ppp
• anyDuplicated.ppx
##### Examples
# NOT RUN {
X <- ppp(c(1,1,0.5), c(2,2,1), window=square(3))
duplicated(X)
duplicated(X, rule="deldir")
# }

Documentation reproduced from package spatstat, version 1.61-0, License: GPL (>= 2)

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