# lpp

##### Create Point Pattern on Linear Network

Creates an object of class `"lpp"`

that represents
a point pattern on a linear network.

- Keywords
- spatial

##### Usage

`lpp(X, L, …)`

##### Arguments

- X
Locations of the points. A matrix or data frame of coordinates, or a point pattern object (of class

`"ppp"`

) or other data acceptable to`as.ppp`

.- L
Linear network (object of class

`"linnet"`

).- …
Ignored.

##### Details

This command creates an object of class `"lpp"`

that represents
a point pattern on a linear network.

Normally `X`

is a point pattern. The points of `X`

should lie
on the lines of `L`

.

Alternatively `X`

may be a matrix or data frame containing at
least two columns.

Usually the first two columns of

`X`

will be interpreted as spatial coordinates, and any remaining columns as marks.An exception occurs if

`X`

is a data frame with columns named`x`

,`y`

,`seg`

and`tp`

. Then`x`

and`y`

will be interpreted as spatial coordinates, and`seg`

and`tp`

as local coordinates, with`seg`

indicating which line segment of`L`

the point lies on, and`tp`

indicating how far along the segment the point lies (normalised to 1). Any remaining columns will be interpreted as marks.Another exception occurs if

`X`

is a data frame with columns named`seg`

and`tp`

. Then`seg`

and`tp`

will be interpreted as local coordinates, as above, and the spatial coordinates`x,y`

will be computed from them. Any remaining columns will be interpreted as marks.

If `X`

is missing or `NULL`

, the result is an empty
point pattern (i.e. containing no points).

##### Value

An object of class `"lpp"`

.
Also inherits the class `"ppx"`

.

##### Note on changed format

The internal format of `"lpp"`

objects was changed in
spatstat version `1.28-0`

.
Objects in the old format are still handled correctly,
but computations are faster in the new format.
To convert an object `X`

from the old format to the new format,
use `X <- lpp(as.ppp(X), as.linnet(X))`

.

##### See Also

Installed datasets which are `"lpp"`

objects:
`chicago`

,
`dendrite`

,
`spiders`

.

See `as.lpp`

for converting data to an `lpp`

object.

See `methods.lpp`

and
`methods.ppx`

for other methods applicable
to `lpp`

objects.

Calculations on an `lpp`

object:
`intensity.lpp`

,
`distfun.lpp`

,
`nndist.lpp`

,
`nnwhich.lpp`

,
`nncross.lpp`

,
`nnfun.lpp`

.

Summary functions:
`linearK`

,
`linearKinhom`

,
`linearpcf`

,
`linearKdot`

,
`linearKcross`

,
`linearmarkconnect`

, etc.

Random point patterns on a linear network can be generated by
`rpoislpp`

or `runiflpp`

.

See `linnet`

for linear networks.

##### Examples

```
# NOT RUN {
# letter 'A'
v <- ppp(x=(-2):2, y=3*c(0,1,2,1,0), c(-3,3), c(-1,7))
edg <- cbind(1:4, 2:5)
edg <- rbind(edg, c(2,4))
letterA <- linnet(v, edges=edg)
# points on letter A
xx <- list(x=c(-1.5,0,0.5,1.5), y=c(1.5,3,4.5,1.5))
X <- lpp(xx, letterA)
plot(X)
X
summary(X)
# empty pattern
lpp(L=letterA)
# }
```

*Documentation reproduced from package spatstat, version 1.63-0, License: GPL (>= 2)*