spatstat (version 1.64-1)

connected.ppp: Connected Components of a Point Pattern


Finds the topologically-connected components of a point pattern, when all pairs of points closer than a threshold distance are joined.


# S3 method for ppp
connected(X, R, …)

# S3 method for pp3 connected(X, R, …)



A point pattern (object of class "ppp" or "pp3").


Threshold distance. Pairs of points closer than R units apart will be joined together.

Other arguments, not recognised by these methods.


A point pattern, equivalent to X except that the points have factor-valued marks, with levels corresponding to the connected components.


This function can be used to identify clumps of points in a point pattern.

The function connected is generic. This file documents the methods for point patterns in dimension two or three (objects of class "ppp" or "pp3").

The point pattern X is first converted into an abstract graph by joining every pair of points that lie closer than R units apart. Then the connected components of this graph are identified.

Two points in X belong to the same connected component if they can be reached by a series of steps between points of X, each step being shorter than R units in length.

The result is a vector of labels for the points of X where all the points in a connected component have the same label.

See Also, im.object, tess


   Y <- connected(redwoodfull, 0.1)
   if(interactive()) {
    plot(Y, cols=1:length(levels(marks(Y))),
         main="connected(redwoodfull, 0.1)")
   X <- osteo$pts[[1]]
   Z <- connected(X, 32)
   if(interactive()) {
    plot(Z, col=marks(Z), main="")
# }