A collection of functions to create spatial weights matrix
objects from polygon 'contiguities', from point patterns by distance and
tessellations, for summarizing these objects, and for permitting their
use in spatial data analysis, including regional aggregation by minimum
spanning tree; a collection of tests for spatial 'autocorrelation',
including global 'Morans I' and 'Gearys C' proposed by 'Cliff' and 'Ord'
(1973, ISBN: 0850860369) and (1981, ISBN: 0850860814), 'Hubert/Mantel'
general cross product statistic, Empirical Bayes estimates and
'Assunção/Reis' (1999) Index, 'Getis/Ord' G ('Getis' and 'Ord' 1992)
join count statistics, 'APLE' ('Li 'et al.' )
, local 'Moran's I', 'Gearys C'
('Anselin' 1995) and
'Getis/Ord' G ('Ord' and 'Getis' 1995)
'saddlepoint' approximations ('Tiefelsdorf' 2002)
and exact tests
for global and local 'Moran's I' ('Bivand et al.' 2009)
and 'LOSH' local indicators
of spatial heteroscedasticity ('Ord' and 'Getis')
. The implementation of most of
the measures is described in 'Bivand' and 'Wong' (2018)
, with further extensions in 'Bivand' (2022)
From 'spdep' and 'spatialreg' versions >= 1.2-1, the model fitting functions
previously present in this package are defunct in 'spdep' and may be found