# ppoints

0th

Percentile

##### Ordinates for Probability Plotting

Generates the sequence of probability points (1:m - a)/(m + (1-a)-a) where m is either n, if length(n)==1, or length(n).

Keywords
distribution, arith, dplot
##### Usage
ppoints(n, a = if(n 
##### Arguments
n
either the number of points generated or a vector of observations.
a
the offset fraction to be used; typically in $(0,1)$.
##### Details

If $0 < a < 1$, the resulting values are within $(0,1)$ (excluding boundaries). In any case, the resulting sequence is symmetric in $[0,1]$, i.e., p + rev(p) == 1.

ppoints() is used in qqplot and qqnorm to generate the set of probabilities at which to evaluate the inverse distribution.

The choice of a follows the documentation of the function of the same name in Becker et al (1988), and appears to have been motivated by results from Blom (1958) on approximations to expect normal order statistics (see also quantile).

##### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

Blom, G. (1958) Statistical Estimates and Transformed Beta Variables. Wiley

qqplot, qqnorm.
library(stats) ppoints(4) # the same as ppoints(1:4) ppoints(10) ppoints(10, a = 1/2) ## Visualize including the fractions : require(graphics)lNs <- loadedNamespaces() p.ppoints <- function(n, ..., add = FALSE, col = par("col")) { pn <- ppoints(n, ...) if(add) points(pn, pn, col=col) else { tit <- match.call(); tit[[1]] <- quote(ppoints) plot(pn,pn, main = deparse(tit), col=col, xlim=0:1, ylim=0:1, xaxs="i", yaxs="i") abline(0,1, col = adjustcolor(1, 1/4), lty = 3) } if(requireNamespace("MASS", quietly=TRUE)) text(pn, pn, as.character(MASS::fractions(pn)), adj = c(0,0)-1/4, cex = 3/4, xpd = NA, col=col) abline(h=pn, v=pn, col = adjustcolor(col, 1/2), lty = 2, lwd = 1/2) } p.ppoints(4) p.ppoints(10) p.ppoints(10, a = 1/2) p.ppoints(21) p.ppoints(8) ; p.ppoints(8, a = 1/2, add=TRUE, col="tomato") if(!any("MASS" == lNs)) unloadNamespace("MASS")