```
C <- chol(S <- toeplitz(.9 ^ (0:31))) # Cov.matrix and its root
all.equal(S, crossprod(C))
set.seed(17)
X <- matrix(rnorm(32000), 1000, 32)
Z <- X %*% C ## ==> cov(Z) ~= C'C = S
all.equal(cov(Z), S, tol = 0.08)
pZ <- prcomp(Z, tol = 0.1)
summary(pZ) # only ~14 PCs (out of 32)
## or choose only 3 PCs more directly:
pz3 <- prcomp(Z, rank. = 3)
summary(pz3) # same numbers as the first 3 above
stopifnot(ncol(pZ$rotation) == 14, ncol(pz3$rotation) == 3,
all.equal(pz3$sdev, pZ$sdev, tol = 1e-15)) # exactly equal typically
## signs are random
require(graphics)
## the variances of the variables in the
## USArrests data vary by orders of magnitude, so scaling is appropriate
prcomp(USArrests) # inappropriate
prcomp(USArrests, scale = TRUE)
prcomp(~ Murder + Assault + Rape, data = USArrests, scale = TRUE)
plot(prcomp(USArrests))
summary(prcomp(USArrests, scale = TRUE))
biplot(prcomp(USArrests, scale = TRUE))
```

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