```
# NOT RUN {
## Compute the averages for the variables in 'state.x77', grouped
## according to the region (Northeast, South, North Central, West) that
## each state belongs to.
aggregate(state.x77, list(Region = state.region), mean)
## Compute the averages according to region and the occurrence of more
## than 130 days of frost.
aggregate(state.x77,
list(Region = state.region,
Cold = state.x77[,"Frost"] > 130),
mean)
## (Note that no state in 'South' is THAT cold.)
## example with character variables and NAs
testDF <- data.frame(v1 = c(1,3,5,7,8,3,5,NA,4,5,7,9),
v2 = c(11,33,55,77,88,33,55,NA,44,55,77,99) )
by1 <- c("red", "blue", 1, 2, NA, "big", 1, 2, "red", 1, NA, 12)
by2 <- c("wet", "dry", 99, 95, NA, "damp", 95, 99, "red", 99, NA, NA)
aggregate(x = testDF, by = list(by1, by2), FUN = "mean")
# and if you want to treat NAs as a group
fby1 <- factor(by1, exclude = "")
fby2 <- factor(by2, exclude = "")
aggregate(x = testDF, by = list(fby1, fby2), FUN = "mean")
## Formulas, one ~ one, one ~ many, many ~ one, and many ~ many:
aggregate(weight ~ feed, data = chickwts, mean)
aggregate(breaks ~ wool + tension, data = warpbreaks, mean)
aggregate(cbind(Ozone, Temp) ~ Month, data = airquality, mean)
aggregate(cbind(ncases, ncontrols) ~ alcgp + tobgp, data = esoph, sum)
## Dot notation:
aggregate(. ~ Species, data = iris, mean)
aggregate(len ~ ., data = ToothGrowth, mean)
## Often followed by xtabs():
ag <- aggregate(len ~ ., data = ToothGrowth, mean)
xtabs(len ~ ., data = ag)
## Compute the average annual approval ratings for American presidents.
aggregate(presidents, nfrequency = 1, FUN = mean)
## Give the summer less weight.
aggregate(presidents, nfrequency = 1,
FUN = weighted.mean, w = c(1, 1, 0.5, 1))
# }
```

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