```
# NOT RUN {
require(graphics)
fr <- function(x) { ## Rosenbrock Banana function
x1 <- x[1]
x2 <- x[2]
100 * (x2 - x1 * x1)^2 + (1 - x1)^2
}
grr <- function(x) { ## Gradient of 'fr'
x1 <- x[1]
x2 <- x[2]
c(-400 * x1 * (x2 - x1 * x1) - 2 * (1 - x1),
200 * (x2 - x1 * x1))
}
optim(c(-1.2,1), fr)
(res <- optim(c(-1.2,1), fr, grr, method = "BFGS"))
optimHess(res$par, fr, grr)
optim(c(-1.2,1), fr, NULL, method = "BFGS", hessian = TRUE)
## These do not converge in the default number of steps
optim(c(-1.2,1), fr, grr, method = "CG")
optim(c(-1.2,1), fr, grr, method = "CG", control = list(type = 2))
optim(c(-1.2,1), fr, grr, method = "L-BFGS-B")
flb <- function(x)
{ p <- length(x); sum(c(1, rep(4, p-1)) * (x - c(1, x[-p])^2)^2) }
## 25-dimensional box constrained
optim(rep(3, 25), flb, NULL, method = "L-BFGS-B",
lower = rep(2, 25), upper = rep(4, 25)) # par[24] is *not* at boundary
## "wild" function , global minimum at about -15.81515
fw <- function (x)
10*sin(0.3*x)*sin(1.3*x^2) + 0.00001*x^4 + 0.2*x+80
plot(fw, -50, 50, n = 1000, main = "optim() minimising 'wild function'")
res <- optim(50, fw, method = "SANN",
control = list(maxit = 20000, temp = 20, parscale = 20))
res
## Now improve locally {typically only by a small bit}:
(r2 <- optim(res$par, fw, method = "BFGS"))
points(r2$par, r2$value, pch = 8, col = "red", cex = 2)
## Combinatorial optimization: Traveling salesman problem
library(stats) # normally loaded
eurodistmat <- as.matrix(eurodist)
distance <- function(sq) { # Target function
sq2 <- embed(sq, 2)
sum(eurodistmat[cbind(sq2[,2], sq2[,1])])
}
genseq <- function(sq) { # Generate new candidate sequence
idx <- seq(2, NROW(eurodistmat)-1)
changepoints <- sample(idx, size = 2, replace = FALSE)
tmp <- sq[changepoints[1]]
sq[changepoints[1]] <- sq[changepoints[2]]
sq[changepoints[2]] <- tmp
sq
}
sq <- c(1:nrow(eurodistmat), 1) # Initial sequence: alphabetic
distance(sq)
# rotate for conventional orientation
loc <- -cmdscale(eurodist, add = TRUE)$points
x <- loc[,1]; y <- loc[,2]
s <- seq_len(nrow(eurodistmat))
tspinit <- loc[sq,]
plot(x, y, type = "n", asp = 1, xlab = "", ylab = "",
main = "initial solution of traveling salesman problem", axes = FALSE)
arrows(tspinit[s,1], tspinit[s,2], tspinit[s+1,1], tspinit[s+1,2],
angle = 10, col = "green")
text(x, y, labels(eurodist), cex = 0.8)
set.seed(123) # chosen to get a good soln relatively quickly
res <- optim(sq, distance, genseq, method = "SANN",
control = list(maxit = 30000, temp = 2000, trace = TRUE,
REPORT = 500))
res # Near optimum distance around 12842
tspres <- loc[res$par,]
plot(x, y, type = "n", asp = 1, xlab = "", ylab = "",
main = "optim() 'solving' traveling salesman problem", axes = FALSE)
arrows(tspres[s,1], tspres[s,2], tspres[s+1,1], tspres[s+1,2],
angle = 10, col = "red")
text(x, y, labels(eurodist), cex = 0.8)
## 1-D minimization: "Brent" or optimize() being preferred.. but NM may be ok and "unavoidable",
## ---------------- so we can suppress the check+warning :
system.time(rO <- optimize(function(x) (x-pi)^2, c(0, 10)))
system.time(ro <- optim(1, function(x) (x-pi)^2, control=list(warn.1d.NelderMead = FALSE)))
rO$minimum - pi # 0 (perfect), on one platform
ro$par - pi # ~= 1.9e-4 on one platform
utils::str(ro)
# }
```

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