stats (version 3.6.2)

start: Encode the Terminal Times of Time Series


Extract and encode the times the first and last observations were taken. Provided only for compatibility with S version 2.


start(x, …)
end(x, …)



a univariate or multivariate time-series, or a vector or matrix.

extra arguments for future methods.


The representation used by start and end has no meaning unless the frequency is supplied.


These are generic functions, which will use the tsp attribute of x if it exists. Their default methods decode the start time from the original time units, so that for a monthly series 1995.5 is represented as c(1995, 7). For a series of frequency f, time n+i/f is presented as c(n, i+1) (even for i = 0 and f = 1).

See Also

ts, time, tsp.