# texreg

0th

Percentile

##### Convert regression output to LaTeX or HTML tables

Conversion of R regression output to LaTeX or HTML tables.

Keywords
misc, utilities, print, IO, programming|interface
##### Usage
texreg(l, file = NULL, single.row = FALSE, stars = c(0.001,  0.01, 0.05), custom.model.names = NULL,  custom.coef.names = NULL, custom.gof.names = NULL,  custom.note = NULL, digits = 2, leading.zero = TRUE,  symbol = "\\cdot", override.coef = 0, override.se = 0,  override.pvalues = 0, override.ci.low = 0,  override.ci.up = 0, omit.coef = NULL, reorder.coef = NULL,  reorder.gof = NULL, ci.force = FALSE, ci.force.level = 0.95,  ci.test = 0, groups = NULL, custom.columns = NULL,  custom.col.pos = NULL, bold = 0.00, center = TRUE,  caption = "Statistical models", caption.above = FALSE,  label = "table:coefficients", booktabs = FALSE,  dcolumn = FALSE, sideways = FALSE, longtable = FALSE,  use.packages = TRUE, table = TRUE, no.margin = FALSE,  fontsize = NULL, scalebox = NULL, float.pos = "", ...)
htmlreg(l, file = NULL, single.row = FALSE, stars = c(0.001,  0.01, 0.05), custom.model.names = NULL,  custom.coef.names = NULL, custom.gof.names = NULL,  custom.note = NULL, digits = 2, leading.zero = TRUE,  symbol = "·", override.coef = 0, override.se = 0,  override.pvalues = 0, override.ci.low = 0,  override.ci.up = 0, omit.coef = NULL, reorder.coef = NULL,  reorder.gof = NULL, ci.force = FALSE, ci.force.level = 0.95,  ci.test = 0, groups = NULL, custom.columns = NULL,  custom.col.pos = NULL, bold = 0.00, center = TRUE,  caption = "Statistical models", caption.above = FALSE,  star.symbol = "*", inline.css = TRUE, doctype = TRUE,  html.tag = FALSE, head.tag = FALSE, body.tag = FALSE,  indentation = "", vertical.align.px = 0, ...)
screenreg(l, file = NULL, single.row = FALSE, stars = c(0.001,  0.01, 0.05), custom.model.names = NULL,  custom.coef.names = NULL, custom.gof.names = NULL,  custom.note = NULL, digits = 2, leading.zero = TRUE,  symbol = ".", override.coef = 0, override.se = 0,  override.pvalues = 0, override.ci.low = 0,  override.ci.up = 0, omit.coef = NULL, reorder.coef = NULL,  reorder.gof = NULL, ci.force = FALSE, ci.force.level = 0.95,  ci.test = 0, groups = NULL, custom.columns = NULL,  custom.col.pos = NULL, column.spacing = 2, outer.rule = "=",  inner.rule = "-", ...)
##### Arguments
l
A statistical model or a list of statistical models. Lists of models can be specified as l = list(model.1, model.2, ...). Different object types can also be mixed.
file
Using this argument, the resulting table is written to a file rather than to the R prompt. The file name can be specified as a character string. Writing a table to a file can be useful for working with MS Office or LibreOffice. For example, using the htmlreg function, an HTML table can be written to a file with the extension .doc and opened with MS Word. The table can then be simply copied into any Word document, retaining the formatting of the table. Note that LibreOffice can import only plain HTML; CSS decorations are not supported; the resulting tables do not retain the full formatting in LibreOffice.
single.row
By default, a model parameter takes up two lines of the table: the standard error is listed in parentheses under the coefficient. This saves a lot of horizontal space on the page and is the default table format in most academic journals. If single.row = TRUE is activated, however, both coefficient and standard error are placed in a single table cell in the same line.
stars
The significance levels to be used to draw stars. Between 0 and 4 threshold values can be provided as a numeric vector. For example, stars = numeric(0) will not print any stars and will not print any note about significance levels below the table. stars = 0.05 will attach one single star to all coefficients where the p value is below 0.05. stars = c(0.001, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1) will print one, two, or three stars, or a symbol as specified by the symbol argument depending on the p values.
custom.model.names
A character vector of labels for the models. By default, the models are named Model 1, Model 2, etc. Specifying model.names = c("My name 1", "My name 2") etc. overrides the default behavior.
custom.coef.names
By default, texreg uses the coefficient names which are stored in the models. The custom.coef.names argument can be used to replace them by other character strings in the order of appearance. For example, if a table shows a total of three different coefficients (including the intercept), the argument custom.coef.names = c("Intercept", "variable 1", "variable 2") will replace their names in this order.

Sometimes it happens that the same variable has a different name in different models. In this case, the user can use this function to assign identical names. If possible, the rows will then be merged into a single row unless both rows contain values in the same column.

Where the argument contains an NA value, the original name of the coefficient is kept. For example, custom.coef.names = c(NA, "age", NA) will only replace the second coef name and leave the first and third name as they are in the original model.

custom.gof.names
A character vector which is used to replace the names of the goodness-of-fit statistics at the bottom of the table. The vector must have the same length as the number of GOF statistics in the final table. The argument works like the custom.coef.names argument, but for the GOF values. NA values can be included where the original GOF name should be kept.
custom.note
With this argument, a replacement text for the significance note below the table can be provided. If an empty character object is provided (custom.note = ""), the note will be omitted completely. If some character string is provided (e.g., custom.note = "My note"), the significance legend is replaced by My note. The original significance legend can be included by inserting the %stars wildcard. For example, a custom note can be added right after the significance legend by providing custom.note = "%stars. My note".
digits
Set the number of decimal places for coefficients, standard errors and goodness-of-fit statistics. Do not use negative values! The argument works like the digits argument in the round function of the base package.
Most journals require leading zeros of coefficients and standard errors (for example, 0.35). This is also the default texreg behavior. Some journals, however, require omission of leading zeros (for example, .35). This can be achieved by setting leading.zero = FALSE.
symbol
If four threshold values are handed over to the stars argument, p values smaller than the largest threshold value but larger than the second-largest threshold value are denoted by this symbol. The default symbol is "\\cdot" for the LaTeX dot, "·" for the HTML dot, or simply "." for the ASCII dot. If the texreg function is used, any other mathematical LaTeX symbol or plain text symbol can be used, for example symbol = "\\circ" for a small circle (note that backslashes must be escaped). If the htmlreg function is used, any other HTML character or symbol can be used. For the screenreg function, only plain text characters can be used.
override.coef
Set custom values for the coefficients. New coefficients are provided as a list of numeric vectors. The list contains vectors of coefficients for each model. There must be as many vectors of coefficients as there are models. For example, if there are two models with three model terms each, the argument could be specified as override.coef = list(c(0.1, 0.2, 0.3), c(0.05, 0.06, 0.07)). If there is only one model, custom values can be provided as a plain vector (not embedded in a list). For example: override.coef = c(0.05, 0.06, 0.07).
override.se
Set custom values for the standard errors. New standard errors are provided as a list of numeric vectors. The list contains vectors of standard errors for each model. There must be as many vectors of standard errors as there are models. For example, if there are two models with three coefficients each, the argument could be specified as override.se = list(c(0.1, 0.2, 0.3), c(0.05, 0.06, 0.07)). If there is only one model, custom values can be provided as a plain vector (not embedded in a list). For example: override.se = c(0.05, 0.06, 0.07). Overriding standard errors can be useful for the implementation of robust SEs, for example.
override.pvalues
Set custom values for the p values. New p values are provided as a list of numeric vectors. The list contains vectors of p values for each model. There must be as many vectors of p values as there are models. For example, if there are two models with three coefficients each, the argument could be specified as override.pvalues = list(c(0.1, 0.2, 0.3), c(0.05, 0.06, 0.07)). If there is only one model, custom values can be provided as a plain vector (not embedded in a list). For example: override.pvalues = c(0.05, 0.06, 0.07). Overriding p values can be useful for the implementation of robust SEs and p values, for example.
override.ci.low
Set custom lower confidence interval bounds. This works like the other override arguments, with one exception: if confidence intervals are provided here and in the override.ci.up argument, the standard errors and p values as well as the ci.force argument are ignored.
override.ci.up
Set custom upper confidence interval bounds. This works like the other override arguments, with one exception: if confidence intervals are provided here and in the override.ci.low argument, the standard errors and p values as well as the ci.force argument are ignored.
omit.coef
A character string which is used as a regular expression to remove coefficient rows from the table. For example, omit.coef = "group" deletes all coefficient rows from the table where the name of the coefficient contains the character sequence "group". More complex regular expressions can be used to filter out several kinds of model terms, for example omit.coef = "(thresh)|(ranef)" to remove all model terms matching either "thresh" or "ranef".The omit.coef argument is processed after the custom.coef.names argument, so the regular expression should refer to the custom coefficient names. To omit GOF entries instead of coefficient entries, use the custom arguments of the extract functions instead (see the help entry of the extract function or extract-methods.
reorder.coef
Reorder the rows of the coefficient block of the resulting table in a custom way. The argument takes a vector of the same length as the number of coefficients. For example, if there are three coefficients, reorder.coef = c(3, 2, 1) will put the third coefficient in the first row and the first coefficient in the third row. Reordering can be sensible because interaction effects are often added to the end of the model output although they were specified earlier in the model formula. Note: Reordering takes place after processing custom coefficient names and after omitting coefficients, so the custom.coef.names and omit.coef arguments should follow the original order.
reorder.gof
Reorder the rows of the goodness-of-fit block of the resulting table in a custom way. The argument takes a vector of the same length as the number of GOF statistics. For example, if there are three goodness-of-fit rows, reorder.gof = c(3, 2, 1) will exchange the first and the third row. Note: Reordering takes place after processing custom GOF names, so the custom.gof.names argument should follow the original order.
ci.force
Should confidence intervals be used instead of the default standard errors and p values? Most models implemented in the texreg package report standard errors and p values by default while few models report confidence intervals. However, the functions in the texreg package can convert standard errors and into confidence intervals if desired. To enforce confidence intervals instead of standard errors, the ci.force argument accepts either a logical value indicating whether all models or none of the models should be forced to report confidence intervals (ci.force = TRUE for all and ci.force = FALSE for none) or a vector of logical values indicating for each model separately whether the model should be forced to report confidence intervals (e.g., ci.force = c(FALSE, TRUE, FALSE)). Confidence intervals are computed using the standard normal distribution (z values based on the qnorm function).
ci.force.level
If the ci.force argument is used to convert standard errors to confidence intervals, what confidence level should be used? By default, 0.95 is used (i.e., an alpha value of 0.05).
ci.test
If confidence intervals are reported, the ci.test argument specifies the reference value to establish whether a coefficient/CI is significant. The default value ci.test = 0, for example, will attach a significance star to coefficients if the confidence interval does not contain 0. If no star should be printed at all, ci.test = NULL can be used. The ci.test argument works both for models with native support for confidence intervals and in cases where the ci.force argument is used.
groups
This argument can be used to group the rows of the table into blocks. For example, there could be one block for hypotheses and another block for control variables. Each group has a heading, and the row labels within a group are indented. The partitions must be handed over as a list of named numeric vectors, where each number is a row index and each name is the heading of the group. Example: groups = list("first group" = 1:4, "second group" = 7:8).
custom.columns
An optional list of additional text columns to be inserted into the table, for example coefficient types. The list should contain one or more character vectors with as many character or numeric elements as there are rows. If the vectors in the list are named, the names are used as labels in the table header. For example, custom.columns = list(type = c("a", "b", "c"), 1:3) will add two columns; the first one is labeled while the second one is not. Note that the numeric elements of the second column will be converted to character objects in this example. The consequence is that decimal alignment with the dcolumn package is switched off in these columns. Note that this argument is processed after any arguments that affect the number of rows.
custom.col.pos
An optional integer vector of positions for the columns given in the custom columns argument. For example, if there are three custom columns, custom.col.pos = c(1, 3, 3) will insert the first custom column before the first column of the original table and the remaining two custom columns after the second column of the original table. By default, all custom columns are placed after the first column, which usually contains the coefficient names.
bold
[only in the texreg and htmlreg functions] The p value threshold below which the coefficient shall be formatted in a bold font. For example, bold = 0.05 will cause all coefficients which are significant at the 95% level to be formatted in bold. Note that this is not compatible with the dcolumn argument in the texreg function. If both are TRUE, dcolumn is switched off and a warning message appears. Note also that it is advisable to use stars = FALSE together with the bold argument because having both bolded coefficients and significance stars usually does not make any sense.
center
[only in the texreg and htmlreg functions] Should the table be horizontally aligned at the center of the page?
caption
[only in the texreg and htmlreg functions] Set the caption of the table.
caption.above
[only in the texreg and htmlreg functions] Should the caption of the table be placed above the table? By default, it is placed below the table.
label
[only in the texreg function] Set the label of the table environment.
booktabs
[only in the texreg function] Use the booktabs LaTeX package to get thick horizontal rules in the output table (recommended).
dcolumn
[only in the texreg function] Use the dcolumn LaTeX package to get a nice alignment of the coefficients (recommended).
sideways
[only in the texreg function] If sideways = TRUE is set, the table floating environment is replaced by a sidewaystable float, and the rotating package is loaded in the preamble. The argument only has an effect if table = TRUE is also set.
longtable
[only in the texreg function] If longtable = TRUE is set, the longtable environment from the longtable LaTeX package is used to set tables across multiple pages. Note that this argument is not compatible with the sideways and scalebox arguments. These arguments will be automatically switched off when longtable = TRUE is set.
use.packages
[only in the texreg function] If this argument is set to TRUE (= the default behavior), the required LaTeX packages are loaded in the beginning. If set to FALSE, the use package statements are omitted from the output.
table
[only in the texreg function] By default, texreg puts the actual tabular object in a table floating environment. To get only the tabular object without the whole table header, set table = FALSE.
no.margin
[only in the texreg function] In order to save space, inner margins of tables can be switched off.
fontsize
[only in the texreg function] The fontsize argument serves to change the font size used in the table. Valid values are "tiny", "scriptsize", "footnotesize", "small", "normalsize", "large", "Large", "LARGE", "huge", and "Huge". Note that the scalebox argument often achieves better results when the goal is to change the size of the table.
scalebox
[only in the texreg function] The scalebox argument serves to resize the table. For example, scalebox = 1.0 is equivalent to the normal size, scalebox = 0.5 decreases the size of the table by one half, and scalebox = 2.0 doubles the space occupied by the table. Note that the scalebox argument does not work when the longtable argument is used.
float.pos
[only in the texreg function] This argument specifies where the table should be located on the page or in the document. By default, no floating position is specified, and LaTeX takes care of the position automatically. Possible values include h (here), p (page), t (top), b (bottom), any combination thereof, e.g. tb, or any of these values followed by an exclamation mark, e.g. t!, in order to enforce this position. The square brackets do not have to be specified.
star.symbol
[only in the htmlreg function] Alternative characters for the significance stars can be specified. This is useful if knitr and Markdown are used for HTML report generation. In Markdown, asterisks or stars are interpreted as special characters, so they have to be escaped. To make htmlreg compatible with Markdown, specify star.symbol = "\*". Note that some other modifications are recommended for usage with knitr in combination with Markdown or HTML (see the inline.css, doctype, html.tag, head.tag, and body.tag arguments).
inline.css
[only in the htmlreg function] Should the CSS stylesheets be embedded directly in the code of the table (inline.css = TRUE), or should the CSS stylesheets be enclosed in the tag, that is, separated from the table code (inline.css = FALSE)? Having inline CSS code makes the code of the table more complex, but sometimes it may be helpful when only the table shall be printed, without the head of the HTML file (for example when the table is embedded in a knitr report). As a rule of thumb: use inline CSS if the table is not saved to a file.
doctype
[only in the htmlreg function] Should the first line of the HTML code contain the DOCTYPE definition? If TRUE, the HTML 4 TRANSITIONAL version is used. If FALSE, no DOCTYPE will be included. Omitting the DOCTYPE can be helpful when the knitr package is used to generate HTML code because knitr requires only the plain table, not the whole HTML document including the document type declaration. Including the DOCTYPE can be helpful when the code is saved to a file, for example as an MS Word document.
html.tag
[only in the htmlreg function] Should the table code (and possibly the and tags) be enclosed in an tag? Suppressing this tag is recommended when knitr is used for dynamic HTML or Markdown report generation. Including this tag is recommended when the code is saved to a file, for example as an MS Word document.
[only in the htmlreg function] Should the tag (including CSS definitions and title/caption) be included in the HTML code? Suppressing this tag is recommended when knitr is used for dynamic HTML or Markdown report generation. Including this tag is recommended when the code is saved to a file, for example as an MS Word document.
body.tag
[only in the htmlreg function] Should the table code be enclosed in a HTML tag? Suppressing this tag is recommended when knitr is used for dynamic HTML or Markdown report generation. Including this tag is recommended when the code is saved to a file, for example as an MS Word document.
indentation
[only in the htmlreg function] Characters used for indentation of the HTML code. By default, indentation = "" uses no indentation. Any number of spaces or characters can be used instead. For example, indentation = " " uses two spaces of (additional) indentation for each subelement.
vertical.align.px
[only in the htmlreg function] Vertical alignment of significance stars. Browsers differ in their ways of displaying superscripted significance stars; in some browsers the stars are elevated by default, and in other browsers the stars are aligned vertically with the text, without any actual superscripting. This argument controls by how many additional pixels the stars are elevated. The default setting of 0 uses the defaults of the browser. In RStudio's internal browser, this looks OK, but in Firefox, this looks too low. A value of 4 looks OK in Firefox, for example, but is above the line in RStudio's internal browser.
column.spacing
[only in the screenreg function] The amount of space between any two columns of a table. By default, two spaces are used. If the tables do not fit on a single page horizontally, the value can be set to 1 or 0.
outer.rule
[only in the screenreg function] The character which is used to draw the outer horizontal line above and below a table. If an empty character object is provided (i.e., outer.rule = ""), there will be no outer horizontal lines. Recommended values are "", "=", "-", "_", or "#".
inner.rule
[only in the screenreg function] The character which is used to draw the inner horizontal line above and below a table. If an empty character object is provided (i.e., outer.rule = ""), there will be no inner horizontal lines. Recommended values are "", "-", or "_".
...
Custom options to be passed on to the extract function. For example, most extract methods provide custom options for the inclusion or exclusion of specific goodness-of-fit statistics. See the help entries of extract and extract-methods for more information.
##### Details

texreg converts coefficients, standard errors, significance stars, and goodness-of-fit statistics of statistical models into LaTeX tables or HTML tables or into nicely formatted screen output for the R console. A list of several models can be combined in a single table. The output is customizable. New model types can be easily implemented. Confidence intervals can be used instead of standard errors and p values.

The texreg() function creates LaTeX code for inclusion in a LaTeX document or for usage with Sweave or knitr.

The htmlreg() function creates HTML code. Tables in HTML format can be saved with a ".html" extension and displayed in a web browser. Alternatively, they can be saved with a ".doc" extension and opened in MS Word for inclusion in office documents. htmlreg() also works with knitr and HTML or Markdown. Note that the inline.css, doctype, html.tag, head.tag, and body.tag arguments must be adjusted for the different purposes (see the description of the arguments).

The screenreg() function creates text representations of tables and prints them to the R console. This is an alternative to the summary method and serves easy model comparison. Moreover, once a table has been prepared in the R console, it can be later exported to LaTeX or HTML with little extra effort because the majority of arguments of the three functions is identical.

##### References

Leifeld, Philip (2013). texreg: Conversion of Statistical Model Output in R to LaTeX and HTML Tables. Journal of Statistical Software, 55(8), 1-24. http://www.jstatsoft.org/v55/i08/.

texreg-package extract extract-methods plotreg

• texreg
• htmlreg
• screenreg
##### Examples
#Linear mixed-effects models
library(nlme)
model.1 <- lme(distance ~ age, data = Orthodont, random = ~ 1)
model.2 <- lme(distance ~ age + Sex, data = Orthodont, random = ~ 1)
texreg(list(model.1, model.2), booktabs = TRUE, dcolumn = TRUE)

#Ordinary least squares model (example from the 'lm' help file)
ctl <- c(4.17,5.58,5.18,6.11,4.50,4.61,5.17,4.53,5.33,5.14)
trt <- c(4.81,4.17,4.41,3.59,5.87,3.83,6.03,4.89,4.32,4.69)
group <- gl(2,10,20, labels = c("Ctl","Trt"))
weight <- c(ctl, trt)
lm.D9 <- lm(weight ~ group)
table.string <- texreg(lm.D9, return.string = TRUE)
cat(table.string)

#Create a 'fake' Office document containing a regression table
htmlreg(list(model.1, model.2), file = "texreg.doc",
inline.css = FALSE, doctype = TRUE, html.tag = TRUE,
head.tag = TRUE, body.tag = TRUE)