Bibliography Entries

Functionality for representing and manipulating bibliographic information in enhanced BibTeX style.

utilities, documentation
bibentry(bibtype, textVersion = NULL, header = NULL, footer = NULL,
         key = NULL, …, other = list(),
         mheader = NULL, mfooter = NULL)

# S3 method for bibentry print(x, style = "text", .bibstyle, …)

# S3 method for bibentry format(x, style = "text", .bibstyle = NULL, citation.bibtex.max = getOption("citation.bibtex.max", 1), bibtex = length(x) <= citation.bibtex.max,="" sort="FALSE," …)<="" p="">

# S3 method for bibentry sort(x, decreasing = FALSE, .bibstyle = NULL, drop = FALSE, …)

# S3 method for citation print(x, style = "citation", …) # S3 method for citation format(x, style = "citation", …)


a character string with a BibTeX entry type. See Entry Types for details.


a character string with a text representation of the reference to optionally be employed for printing.


a character string with optional header text.


a character string with optional footer text.


a character string giving the citation key for the entry.

for bibentry: arguments of the form tag=value giving the fields of the entry, with tag and value the name and value of the field, respectively. Arguments with empty values are dropped. See Entry Fields for details.

For the print() method, extra arguments to pass to the renderer which typically includes the format() method.

For the citation class methods, arguments passed to the next method, i.e., the corresponding bibentry one.


a list of arguments as in (useful in particular for fields named the same as formals of bibentry).


a character string with optional “outer” header text.


a character string with optional “outer” footer text.


an object inheriting from class "bibentry".


an optional character string specifying the print style. If present, must be a unique abbreviation (with case ignored) of the available styles, see Details.


logical, passed to order indicating the sort direction.


a character string naming a bibliography style.


(deprecated, use bibtex = T|F instead!) a number, say \(m\), indicating that the bibtex code should be given in addition to the formatted tex when there are not more than \(m\) entries. The default is taken as getOption("citation.bibtex.max", 1) which is 1 typically. For example, to see no bibtex at all, you can change the default by options(citation.bibtex.max = 0).


logical indicating if bibtex code should be given additionally; currently applies only to style = "citation". The default depends on on the number of (bib) entries and getOption("citation.bibtex.max").


logical indicating if bibentries should be sorted, using bibstyle(.bibstyle)$sortKeys(x).


logical used as x[ ..., drop=drop] inside the sort() method.


The bibentry objects created by bibentry can represent an arbitrary positive number of references. One can use c() to combine bibentry objects, and hence in particular build a multiple reference object from single reference ones. Alternatively, one can use bibentry to directly create a multiple reference object by “vectorizing” the given arguments, i.e., use character vectors instead of character strings.

The print method for bibentry objects provides a choice between seven different styles: plain text (style "text"), BibTeX ("Bibtex"), a mixture of plain text and BibTeX as traditionally used for citations ("citation"), HTML ("html"), LaTeX ("latex"), R code ("R"), and a simple copy of the textVersion elements (style "textVersion"). The "text", "html" and "latex" styles make use of the .bibstyle argument using the bibstyle function. When printing bibentry objects in citation style, a header/footer for each item can be displayed as well as a mheader/mfooter for the whole vector of references.

The print method is based on a format method which provides the same styles, and for formatting as R code a choice between giving a character vector with one bibentry() call for each bibentry (as commonly used in CITATION files), or a character string with one collapsed call, obtained by combining the individual calls with c() if there is more than one bibentry. This can be controlled by setting the option collapse to FALSE (default) or TRUE, respectively. (Printing in R style always collapses to a single call.) Further, for the "citation" style, format()'s optional argument citation.bibtex.max (with default getOption("citation.bibtex.max") which defaults to 1) determines for up to how many citation bibentries text style is shown together with bibtex, automatically.

It is possible to subscript bibentry objects by their keys (which are used for character subscripts if the names are NULL).

There is also a toBibtex method for direct conversion to BibTeX.


bibentry produces an object of class "bibentry".

Entry Types

bibentry creates "bibentry" objects, which are modeled after BibTeX entries. The entry should be a valid BibTeX entry type, e.g.,


An article from a journal or magazine.


A book with an explicit publisher.


A part of a book, which may be a chapter (or section or whatever) and/or a range of pages.


A part of a book having its own title.


An article in a conference proceedings.


Technical documentation like a software manual.


A Master's thesis.


Use this type when nothing else fits.


A PhD thesis.


The proceedings of a conference.


A report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series.


A document having an author and title, but not formally published.

Entry Fields

The argument of bibentry can be any number of BibTeX fields, including


The address of the publisher or other type of institution.


The name(s) of the author(s), either as a character string in the format described in the LaTeX book, or a person object.


Title of a book, part of which is being cited.


A chapter (or section or whatever) number.


The DOI ( for the reference.


Name(s) of editor(s), same format as author.


The publishing institution of a technical report.


A journal name.


Any additional information that can help the reader. The first word should be capitalized.


The number of a journal, magazine, technical report, or of a work in a series.


One or more page numbers or range of numbers.


The publisher's name.


The name of the school where a thesis was written.


The name of a series or set of books.


The work's title.


A URL for the reference. (If the URL is an expanded DOI, we recommend to use the doi field with the unexpanded DOI instead.)


The volume of a journal or multi-volume book.


The year of publication.

See Also


  • bibentry
  • print.bibentry
  • format.bibentry
  • sort.bibentry
  • print.citation
  • format.citation
library(utils) ## R reference rref <- bibentry( bibtype = "Manual", title = "R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing", author = person("R Core Team"), organization = "R Foundation for Statistical Computing", address = "Vienna, Austria", year = 2014, url = "") ## Different printing styles print(rref) print(rref, style = "Bibtex") print(rref, style = "citation") print(rref, style = "html") print(rref, style = "latex") print(rref, style = "R") ## References for boot package and associated book bref <- c( bibentry( bibtype = "Manual", title = "boot: Bootstrap R (S-PLUS) Functions", author = c( person("Angelo", "Canty", role = "aut", comment = "S original"), person(c("Brian", "D."), "Ripley", role = c("aut", "trl", "cre"), comment = "R port, author of parallel support", email = "") ), year = "2012", note = "R package version 1.3-4", url = "", key = "boot-package" ), bibentry( bibtype = "Book", title = "Bootstrap Methods and Their Applications", author = as.person("Anthony C. Davison [aut], David V. Hinkley [aut]"), year = "1997", publisher = "Cambridge University Press", address = "Cambridge", isbn = "0-521-57391-2", url = "", key = "boot-book" ) ) ## Combining and subsetting c(rref, bref) bref[2] bref["boot-book"] ## Extracting fields bref$author bref[1]$author bref[1]$author[2]$email ## Convert to BibTeX toBibtex(bref) ## Format in R style ## One bibentry() call for each bibentry: writeLines(paste(format(bref, "R"), collapse = "\n\n")) ## One collapsed call: writeLines(format(bref, "R", collapse = TRUE))
Documentation reproduced from package utils, version 3.4.1, License: Part of R 3.4.1

Community examples

Looks like there are no examples yet.