utils (version 3.5.1)

head: Return the First or Last Part of an Object

Description

Returns the first or last parts of a vector, matrix, table, data frame or function. Since head() and tail() are generic functions, they may also have been extended to other classes.

Usage

head(x, …)
# S3 method for default
head(x, n = 6L, …)
# S3 method for data.frame
head(x, n = 6L, …)
# S3 method for matrix
head(x, n = 6L, …)
# S3 method for ftable
head(x, n = 6L, …)
# S3 method for table
head(x, n = 6L, …)
# S3 method for function
head(x, n = 6L, …)

tail(x, …) # S3 method for default tail(x, n = 6L, …) # S3 method for data.frame tail(x, n = 6L, …) # S3 method for matrix tail(x, n = 6L, addrownums = TRUE, …) # S3 method for ftable tail(x, n = 6L, addrownums = FALSE, …) # S3 method for table tail(x, n = 6L, addrownums = TRUE, …) # S3 method for function tail(x, n = 6L, …)

Arguments

x

an object

n

a single integer. If positive or zero, size for the resulting object: number of elements for a vector (including lists), rows for a matrix or data frame or lines for a function. If negative, all but the n last/first number of elements of x.

addrownums

if there are no row names, create them from the row numbers.

arguments to be passed to or from other methods.

Value

An object (usually) like x but generally smaller. For ftable objects x, a transformed format(x).

Details

For matrices, 2-dim tables and data frames, head() (tail()) returns the first (last) n rows when n >= 0 or all but the last (first) n rows when n < 0. head.matrix() and tail.matrix() are exported. For functions, the lines of the deparsed function are returned as character strings.

If a matrix has no row names, then tail() will add row names of the form "[n,]" to the result, so that it looks similar to the last lines of x when printed. Setting addrownums = FALSE suppresses this behaviour.

Examples

# NOT RUN {
head(letters)
head(letters, n = -6L)

head(freeny.x, n = 10L)
head(freeny.y)

tail(letters)
tail(letters, n = -6L)

tail(freeny.x)
tail(freeny.y)

tail(library)

head(stats::ftable(Titanic))
# }