read_xml

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Read HTML or XML.

Read HTML or XML.

Usage
read_xml(x, encoding = "", ..., as_html = FALSE,
  options = "NOBLANKS")

read_html(x, encoding = "", ..., options = c("RECOVER", "NOERROR", "NOBLANKS"))

# S3 method for character read_xml(x, encoding = "", ..., as_html = FALSE, options = "NOBLANKS")

# S3 method for raw read_xml(x, encoding = "", base_url = "", ..., as_html = FALSE, options = "NOBLANKS")

# S3 method for connection read_xml(x, encoding = "", n = 64 * 1024, verbose = FALSE, ..., base_url = "", as_html = FALSE, options = "NOBLANKS")

Arguments
x

A string, a connection, or a raw vector.

A string can be either a path, a url or literal xml. Urls will be converted into connections either using base::url or, if installed, curl::curl. Local paths ending in .gz, .bz2, .xz, .zip will be automatically uncompressed.

If a connection, the complete connection is read into a raw vector before being parsed.

encoding

Specify a default encoding for the document. Unless otherwise specified XML documents are assumed to be in UTF-8 or UTF-16. If the document is not UTF-8/16, and lacks an explicit encoding directive, this allows you to supply a default.

...

Additional arguments passed on to methods.

as_html

Optionally parse an xml file as if it's html.

options

Set parsing options for the libxml2 parser. Zero or more of

RECOVER

recover on errors

NOENT

substitute entities

DTDLOAD

load the external subset

DTDATTR

default DTD attributes

DTDVALID

validate with the DTD

NOERROR

suppress error reports

NOWARNING

suppress warning reports

PEDANTIC

pedantic error reporting

NOBLANKS

remove blank nodes

SAX1

use the SAX1 interface internally

XINCLUDE

Implement XInclude substitition

NONET

Forbid network access

NODICT

Do not reuse the context dictionary

NSCLEAN

remove redundant namespaces declarations

NOCDATA

merge CDATA as text nodes

NOXINCNODE

do not generate XINCLUDE START/END nodes

COMPACT

compact small text nodes; no modification of the tree allowed afterwards (will possibly crash if you try to modify the tree)

OLD10

parse using XML-1.0 before update 5

NOBASEFIX

do not fixup XINCLUDE xml:base uris

HUGE

relax any hardcoded limit from the parser

OLDSAX

parse using SAX2 interface before 2.7.0

IGNORE_ENC

ignore internal document encoding hint

BIG_LINES

Store big lines numbers in text PSVI field

base_url

When loading from a connection, raw vector or literal html/xml, this allows you to specify a base url for the document. Base urls are used to turn relative urls into absolute urls.

n

If file is a connection, the number of bytes to read per iteration. Defaults to 64kb.

verbose

When reading from a slow connection, this prints some output on every iteration so you know its working.

Value

An XML document. HTML is normalised to valid XML - this may not be exactly the same transformation performed by the browser, but it's a reasonable approximation.

Setting the "user agent" header

When performing web scraping tasks it is both good practice --- and often required --- to set the user agent request header to a specific value. Sometimes this value is assigned to emulate a browser in order to have content render in a certain way (e.g. Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 5.1; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/52.0 to emulate more recent Windows browsers). Most often, this value should be set to provide the web resource owner information on who you are and the intent of your actions like this Google scraping bot user agent identifier: Googlebot/2.1 (+http://www.google.com/bot.html).

You can set the HTTP user agent for URL-based requests using httr::set_config() and httr::user_agent():

httr::set_config(httr::user_agent("me@example.com; +https://example.com/info.html"))

httr::set_config() changes the configuration globally, httr::with_config() can be used to change configuration temporarily.

Aliases
  • read_xml
  • read_html
  • read_xml.character
  • read_xml.raw
  • read_xml.connection
Examples
# NOT RUN {
# Literal xml/html is useful for small examples
read_xml("<foo><bar /></foo>")
read_html("<html><title>Hi<title></html>")
read_html("<html><title>Hi")

# From a local path
read_html(system.file("extdata", "r-project.html", package = "xml2"))

# }
# NOT RUN {
# From a url
cd <- read_xml(xml2_example("cd_catalog.xml"))
me <- read_html("http://had.co.nz")
# }
Documentation reproduced from package xml2, version 1.2.2, License: GPL (>= 2)

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