# lag.zoo

From zoo v0.9-9
by Achim Zeileis

##### Lags and Differences of zoo Objects

Methods for computing lags and differences of `"zoo"`

objects.

- Keywords
- ts

##### Usage

```
## S3 method for class 'zoo':
lag(x, k = 1, \dots)
## S3 method for class 'zoo':
diff(x, lag = 1, differences = 1, arithmetic = TRUE, \dots)
```

##### Arguments

- x
- a
`"zoo"`

object. - k, lag
- the number of lags (in units of observations).
Note the sign of
`k`

behaves as in`lag`

. - differences
- an integer indicating the order of the difference.
- arithmetic
- logical. Should arithmetic (or geometric) differences be computed?
- ...
- currently not used.

##### Details

These methods for `"zoo"`

objects behave analogously to the default
methods. The only additional argument is `arithmetic`

in `diff`

.

##### Value

- The lagged or differenced
`"zoo"`

object.

##### Note

Note the sign of `k`

: a series lagged by a positive `k`

is shifted *earlier* in time.

##### See Also

##### Examples

```
x <- zoo(11:21)
lag(x, k = 1)
lag(x, k = -1)
# this pairs each value of x with the next or future value
merge(x, lag1 = lag(x, k=1))
diff(x^2)
```

*Documentation reproduced from package zoo, version 0.9-9, License: GPL*

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