newton

0th

Percentile

Simple R level Newton Algorithm, Mostly for Didactical Reasons

Given the function G() and its derivative g(), newton() uses the Newton method, starting at x0, to find a point xp at which G is zero. G() and g() may each depend on the same parameter (vector) z.

Convergence typically happens when the stepsize becomes smaller than eps.

keepAll = TRUE to also get the vectors of consecutive values of x and G(x, z);

Keywords
math
Usage

newton(x0, G, g, z,
       xMin = -Inf, xMax = Inf, warnRng = TRUE,
       dxMax = 1000, eps = 0.0001, maxiter = 1000L,
       warnIter = missing(maxiter) || maxiter >= 10L,
       keepAll = NA)
Arguments
x0

numeric start value.

G, g

must be functions, mathematically of their first argument, but they can accept parameters; g() must be the derivative of G.

z

parameter vector for \(G()\) and \(g()\), to be kept fixed.

xMin, xMax

numbers defining the allowed range for x during the iterations; e.g., useful to set to 0 and 1 during quantile search.

warnRng

logical specifying if a warning should be signalled when start value x0 is outside [xMin, xMax] and hence will be changed to one of the boundary values.

dxMax

maximal step size in \(x\)-space. (The default 1000 is quite arbitrary, do set a good maximal step size yourself!)

eps

positive number, the absolute convergence tolerance.

maxiter

positive integer, specifying the maximal number of Newton iterations.

warnIter

logical specifying if a warning should be signalled when the algorithm has not converged in maxiter iterations.

keepAll

logical specifying if the full sequence of x- and G(x,*) values should be kept and returned:

NA,

the default: newton returns a small list of final “data”, with 4 components x\( = x*\), G\(= G(x*, z)\), it, and converged.

TRUE:

returns an extended list, in addition containing the vectors x.vec and G.vec.

FALSE:

returns only the \(x*\) value.

Details

Because of the quadrativc convergence at the end of the Newton algorithm, often \(x^*\) satisfies approximately \( | G(x*, z)| < eps^2 \).

newton() can be used to compute the quantile function of a distribution, if you have a good starting value, and provide the cumulative probability and density functions as R functions G and g respectively.

Value

The result always contains the final x-value \(x*\), and typically some information about convergence, depending on the value of keepAll, see above:

x

the optimal \(x^*\) value (a number).

G

the function value \(G(x*, z)\), typically very close to zero.

it

the integer number of iterations used.

convergence

logical indicating if the Newton algorithm converged within maxiter iterations.

x.vec

the full vector of x values, \(\{x0,\ldots,x^*\}\).

G.vec

the vector of function values (typically tending to zero), i.e., G(x.vec, .) (even when G(x, .) would not vectorize).

References

Newton's Method on Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton%27s_method.

See Also

uniroot() is much more sophisticated, works without derivatives and is generally faster than newton().

newton(.) is currently crucially used (only) in our function qchisqN().

Aliases
  • newton
Examples
# NOT RUN {
## The most simple non-trivial case :  Computing SQRT(a)
  G <- function(x, a) x^2 - a
  g <- function(x, a) 2*x

  newton(1, G, g, z = 4  ) # z = a -- converges immediately
  newton(1, G, g, z = 400) # bad start, needs longer to converge

## More interesting, and related to non-central (chisq, e.t.) computations:
## When is  x * log(x) < B,  i.e., the inverse function of G = x*log(x) :
xlx <- function(x, B) x*log(x) - B
dxlx <- function(x, B) log(x) + 1

Nxlx <- function(B) newton(B, G=xlx, g=dxlx, z=B, maxiter=Inf)$x
N1   <- function(B) newton(B, G=xlx, g=dxlx, z=B, maxiter = 1)$x
N2   <- function(B) newton(B, G=xlx, g=dxlx, z=B, maxiter = 2)$x

Bs <- c(outer(c(1,2,5), 10^(0:4)))
plot (Bs, vapply(Bs, Nxlx, pi), type = "l", log ="xy")
lines(Bs, vapply(Bs, N1  , pi), col = 2, lwd = 2, lty = 2)
lines(Bs, vapply(Bs, N2  , pi), col = 3, lwd = 3, lty = 3)

BL <- c(outer(c(1,2,5), 10^(0:6)))
plot (BL, vapply(BL, Nxlx, pi), type = "l", log ="xy")
lines(BL, BL, col="green2", lty=3)
lines(BL, vapply(BL, N1  , pi), col = 2, lwd = 2, lty = 2)
lines(BL, vapply(BL, N2  , pi), col = 3, lwd = 3, lty = 3)
## Better starting value from an approximate 1 step Newton:
iL1 <- function(B) 2*B / (log(B) + 1)
lines(BL, iL1(BL), lty=4, col="gray20") ## really better ==> use it as start

Nxlx <- function(B) newton(iL1(B), G=xlx, g=dxlx, z=B, maxiter=Inf)$x
N1   <- function(B) newton(iL1(B), G=xlx, g=dxlx, z=B, maxiter = 1)$x
N2   <- function(B) newton(iL1(B), G=xlx, g=dxlx, z=B, maxiter = 2)$x

plot (BL, vapply(BL, Nxlx, pi), type = "o", log ="xy")
lines(BL, iL1(BL),  lty=4, col="gray20")
lines(BL, vapply(BL, N1  , pi), type = "o", col = 2, lwd = 2, lty = 2)
lines(BL, vapply(BL, N2  , pi), type = "o", col = 3, lwd = 2, lty = 3)
## Manual 2-step Newton
iL2 <- function(B) { lB <- log(B) ; B*(lB+1) / (lB * (lB - log(lB) + 1)) }
lines(BL, iL2(BL), col = adjustcolor("sky blue", 0.6), lwd=6)
##==>  iL2() is very close to true curve
## relative error:
iLtrue <- vapply(BL, Nxlx, pi)
cbind(BL, iLtrue, iL2=iL2(BL), relErL2 = 1-iL2(BL)/iLtrue)
## absolute error (in log-log scale; always positive!):
plot(BL, iL2(BL) - iLtrue, type = "o", log="xy", axes=FALSE)
if(requireNamespace("sfsmisc")) {
  sfsmisc::eaxis(1)
  sfsmisc::eaxis(2, sub10=2)
} else {
  cat("no 'sfsmisc' package; maybe  install.packages(\"sfsmisc\")  ?\n")
  axis(1); axis(2)
}
## 1 step from iL2()  seems quite good:
B. <- BL[-1] # starts at 2
NL2 <- lapply(B., function(B) newton(iL2(B), G=xlx, g=dxlx, z=B, maxiter=1))
str(NL2)
iL3 <- sapply(NL2, `[[`, "x")
cbind(B., iLtrue[-1], iL2=iL2(B.), iL3, relE.3 = 1- iL3/iLtrue[-1])
x. <- iL2(B.)
all.equal(iL3, x. - xlx(x., B.) / dxlx(x.)) ## 7.471802e-8
## Algebraic simplification of one newton step :
all.equal((x.+B.)/(log(x.)+1), x. - xlx(x., B.) / dxlx(x.), tol = 4e-16)
iN1 <- function(x, B) (x+B) / (log(x) + 1)
B <- 12345
iN1(iN1(iN1(B, B),B),B)
Nxlx(B)
# }
Documentation reproduced from package DPQ, version 0.3-3, License: GPL (>= 2)

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