```
flip(x)
flop(x)
rotate(x, angle, filter = "bilinear", output.dim, ...)
translate(x, v, filter = "none", ...)
resize(x, w, h, filter = "bilinear", output.dim = c(w, h), output.origin = c(0, 0), antialias = FALSE, ...)
affine(x, m, filter = c("bilinear", "none"), output.dim, bg.col = "black", antialias = TRUE)
```

x

An

`Image`

object or an array.angle

A numeric specifying the image rotation angle in degrees.

v

A vector of 2 numbers denoting the translation vector in pixels.

w, h

Width and height of the resized image. One of these arguments
can be missing to enable proportional resizing.

filter

A character string indicating the interpolating sampling filter.
Valid values are 'none' or 'bilinear'. See Details.

output.dim

A vector of 2 numbers indicating the dimension of the output image.
For

`affine`

and `translate`

the default is `dim(x)`

, for `resize`

it equals `c(w, h)`

, and for `rotate`

it defaults to the bounding box size of the rotated image.output.origin

A vector of 2 numbers indicating the output coordinates of the origin in pixels.
Default is

`c(0, 0)`

. m

A 3x2 matrix describing the affine transformation. See Details.

bg.col

Color used to fill the background pixels. The default is "black".

antialias

If

`TRUE`

, perform bilinear sampling at image edges using `bg.col`

....

Arguments to be passed to the

`affine`

function, such as `output.dim`

, `bg.col`

or `atialias`

.-
An

`Image`

object or an array, containing the transformed version
of `x`

.
`flip`

mirrors `x`

around the image horizontal axis (vertical reflection).
`flop`

mirrors `x`

around the image vertical axis (horizontal reflection). `rotate`

rotates the image clockwise by the specified
angle around the origin. The rotation origin defaults to the center of the input image and can by changed by modifying
the argument `output.origin`

.
`resize`

resizes the image `x`

to desired dimensions.
Resizing center is changed by modifying the argument `output.origin`

.
Zooming, without changing the output dimension, is achieved by setting
the arguments `w`

and `h`

to values different from `output.dim`

.

`affine`

returns the affine transformation of `x`

, where
pixels coordinates, denoted by the matrix `px`

, are
transformed to `cbind(px, 1)%*%m`

.

All spatial transformations except `flip`

and `flop`

are based on the
general `affine`

transformation. Spatial interpolation can be one of the following types:
`none`

, also called nearest neighbor, where the interpolated pixel value equals to
the closest pixel value, or `bilinear`

, where the interpolated
pixel value is computed by bilinear approximation of the 4 neighboring pixels. The
`bilinear`

filter gives smoother results.

`transpose`

x <- readImage(system.file("images", "sample.png", package="EBImage")) display(x) display( flip(x) ) display( flop(x) ) display( resize(x, 128) ) display( rotate(x, 30) ) display( translate(x, c(120, -20)) ) m <- matrix(c(0.6, 0.2, 0, -0.2, 0.3, 300), nrow=3) display( affine(x, m) )