apply
Apply Functions Over Array Margins
Returns a vector or array or list of values obtained by applying a function to margins of an array or matrix.
Usage
apply(X, MARGIN, FUN, ...)
Arguments
 X
 an array, including a matrix.
 MARGIN
 a vector giving the subscripts which the function will
be applied over. E.g., for a matrix
1
indicates rows,2
indicates columns,c(1, 2)
indicates rows and columns. WhereX
has named dimnames, it can be a character vector selecting dimension names.  FUN
 the function to be applied: see ‘Details’.
In the case of functions like
+
,%*%
, etc., the function name must be backquoted or quoted.  ...
 optional arguments to
FUN
.
Details
If X
is not an array but an object of a class with a nonnull
dim
value (such as a data frame), apply
attempts
to coerce it to an array via as.matrix
if it is twodimensional
(e.g., a data frame) or via as.array
.
FUN
is found by a call to match.fun
and typically
is either a function or a symbol (e.g., a backquoted name) or a
character string specifying a function to be searched for from the
environment of the call to apply
.
Arguments in ...
cannot have the same name as any of the
other arguments, and care may be needed to avoid partial matching to
MARGIN
or FUN
. In generalpurpose code it is good
practice to name the first three arguments if ...
is passed
through: this both avoids partial matching to MARGIN
or FUN
and ensures that a sensible error message is given if
arguments named X
, MARGIN
or FUN
are passed
through ...
.
Value

If each call to
FUN
returns a vector of length n
, then
apply
returns an array of dimension c(n, dim(X)[MARGIN])
if n > 1
. If n
equals 1
, apply
returns a
vector if MARGIN
has length 1 and an array of dimension
dim(X)[MARGIN]
otherwise.
If n
is 0
, the result has length 0 but not necessarily
the ‘correct’ dimension.If the calls to FUN
return vectors of different lengths,
apply
returns a list of length prod(dim(X)[MARGIN])
with
dim
set to MARGIN
if this has length greater than one.In all cases the result is coerced by as.vector
to one
of the basic vector types before the dimensions are set, so that (for
example) factor results will be coerced to a character array.
References
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
See Also
lapply
and there, simplify2array
;
tapply
, and convenience functions
sweep
and aggregate
.
Examples
library(base)
## Compute row and column sums for a matrix:
x < cbind(x1 = 3, x2 = c(4:1, 2:5))
dimnames(x)[[1]] < letters[1:8]
apply(x, 2, mean, trim = .2)
col.sums < apply(x, 2, sum)
row.sums < apply(x, 1, sum)
rbind(cbind(x, Rtot = row.sums), Ctot = c(col.sums, sum(col.sums)))
stopifnot( apply(x, 2, is.vector))
## Sort the columns of a matrix
apply(x, 2, sort)
## function with extra args:
cave < function(x, c1, c2) c(mean(x[c1]), mean(x[c2]))
apply(x, 1, cave, c1 = "x1", c2 = c("x1","x2"))
ma < matrix(c(1:4, 1, 6:8), nrow = 2)
ma
apply(ma, 1, table) #> a list of length 2
apply(ma, 1, stats::quantile) # 5 x n matrix with rownames
stopifnot(dim(ma) == dim(apply(ma, 1:2, sum)))
## Example with different lengths for each call
z < array(1:24, dim = 2:4)
zseq < apply(z, 1:2, function(x) seq_len(max(x)))
zseq ## a 2 x 3 matrix
typeof(zseq) ## list
dim(zseq) ## 2 3
zseq[1,]
apply(z, 3, function(x) seq_len(max(x)))
# a list without a dim attribute