Double Colon and Triple Colon Operators
Accessing exported and internal variables in a namespace.
- package name: symbol or literal character string.
- variable name: symbol or literal character string.
For a package pkg,
pkg::name returns the value of
the exported variable
name in namespace
pkg:::name returns the value of the internal variable
name. The namespace will be loaded if it was not loaded
before the call, but the package will not be attached to the
Specifying a variable or package that does not exist is an error.
pkg::name does not access the objects in the
package:pkg (which does not exist until the
package's namespace is attached): the latter may contain objects not
exported from the namespace. It can access datasets made available by
It is typically a design mistake to use
in your code since the corresponding object has probably been kept
internal for a good reason. Consider contacting the package
maintainer if you feel the need to access the object for anything but
get to access an object masked by another of the same name.
base::log base::"+" ## Beware -- use ':::' at your own risk! (see "Details") stats:::coef.default