# numeric

##### Numeric Vectors

Creates or coerces objects of type `"numeric"`

.
`is.numeric`

is a more general test of an object being
interpretable as numbers.

##### Usage

```
numeric(length = 0)
as.numeric(x, ...)
is.numeric(x)
```

##### Arguments

- length
- A non-negative integer specifying the desired length. Double values will be coerced to integer: supplying an argument of length other than one is an error.
- x
- object to be coerced or tested.
- ...
- further arguments passed to or from other methods.

##### Details

`numeric`

is identical to `double`

(and `real`

).
It creates a double-precision vector of the specified length with each
element equal to `0`

.

`as.numeric`

is a generic function, but S3 methods must be
written for `as.double`

. It is identical to `as.double`

.

`is.numeric`

is an internal generic `primitive`

function: you can write methods to handle specific classes of objects,
see InternalMethods. It is **not** the same as
`is.double`

. Factors are handled by the default method,
and there are methods for classes `"Date"`

,
`"POSIXt"`

and `"difftime"`

(all of which
return false). Methods for `is.numeric`

should only return true
if the base type of the class is `double`

or `integer`

*and* values can reasonably be regarded as numeric
(e.g., arithmetic on them makes sense, and comparison should be done
via the base type).

##### Value

##### S4 methods

`as.numeric`

and `is.numeric`

are internally S4 generic and
so methods can be set for them *via* `setMethod`

. To ensure that `as.numeric`

and `as.double`

remain identical, S4 methods can only be set for `as.numeric`

.

##### Note on names

It is a historical anomaly that R has two names for its
floating-point vectors, `double`

and `numeric`

(and formerly had `real`

). `double`

is the name of the type.
`numeric`

is the name of the mode and also of the implicit
class. As an S4 formal class, use `"numeric"`

. The potential confusion is that R has used *mode*
`"numeric"`

to mean ‘double or integer’, which conflicts
with the S4 usage. Thus `is.numeric`

tests the mode, not the
class, but `as.numeric`

(which is identical to `as.double`

)
coerces to the class.

##### References

Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988)
*The New S Language*.
Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.

##### See Also

##### Examples

`library(base)`

```
as.numeric(c("-.1"," 2.7 ","B")) # (-0.1, 2.7, NA) + warning
as.numeric(factor(5:10))
```

*Documentation reproduced from package base, version 3.2.0, License: Part of R 3.2.0*