sum
Sum of Vector Elements
sum
returns the sum of all the values
present in its arguments.
 Keywords
 arith
Usage
sum(..., na.rm = FALSE)
Arguments
 ...
 numeric or complex or logical vectors.
 na.rm
 logical. Should missing values (including
NaN
) be removed?
Details
This is a generic function: methods can be defined for it
directly or via the Summary
group generic.
For this to work properly, the arguments ...
should be
unnamed, and dispatch is on the first argument.
If na.rm
is FALSE
an NA
or NaN
value in
any of the arguments will cause a value of NA
or NaN
to
be returned, otherwise NA
and NaN
values are ignored.
Logical true values are regarded as one, false values as zero.
For historical reasons, NULL
is accepted and treated as if it
were integer(0)
.
Loss of accuracy can occur when summing values of different signs: this can even occur for sufficiently long integer inputs if the partial sums would cause integer overflow. Where possible extendedprecision accumulators are used, but this is platformdependent.
Value

The sum. If all of
...
are of type integer or logical, then
the sum is integer, and in that case the result will be NA
(with a
warning) if integer overflow occurs. Otherwise it is a lengthone
numeric or complex vector.NB: the sum of an empty set is zero, by definition.
S4 methods
This is part of the S4 Summary
group generic. Methods for it must use the signature
x, ..., na.rm
. ‘plotmath’ for the use of sum
in plot annotation.
References
Becker, R. A., Chambers, J. M. and Wilks, A. R. (1988) The New S Language. Wadsworth & Brooks/Cole.
See Also
colSums
for row and column sums.
Examples
library(base)
## Pass a vector to sum, and it will add the elements together.
sum(1:5)
## Pass several numbers to sum, and it also adds the elements.
sum(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
## In fact, you can pass vectors into several arguments, and everything gets added.
sum(1:2, 3:5)
## If there are missing values, the sum is unknown, i.e., also missing, ....
sum(1:5, NA)
## ... unless we exclude missing values explicitly:
sum(1:5, NA, na.rm = TRUE)
Community examples
sum(seq(1,10))
``` sum(1,5) x<1 ```
``` sum(1,5) x<1 ```
``` ``` sum(1,5) ``` ```
> sum(seq(1,20)) >
> sum(seq(1,20)) >
> sum(seq(1,20)) >